Appendix D. Glossary
Access copy (Reference copy). A restored copy of an item, or a clone, imitation or duplicate copy of an item which is available for audition and/or viewing purposes. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Expanded definition for "Reference copy"
See also Duping copy; Preservation copy (Archive copy).
Alternative title (as part of the Title proper). The second part of a title proper that consists of two parts, each of which is a title. Either the parts are joined by the word or (or its equivalent in another language or script), or the alternative title is written within parentheses. Partly from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Analogue recording. 1. In the broadest sense, a method of recording in which some characteristic of the record current, such as amplitude or frequency, is continuously varied in a manner analogous to the variations of the original signal. 2. A logging of an event by one of various methods of capturing and storing a continuous replica of the source sound pattern by tracing an analogous pattern into another medium. The most commonly used storage methods have been: engraved or embossed modulated grooves in a disc; magnetic particle patterns in tape; optical patterns in film. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Analytic cataloguing record/Analytic entry. Discrete bibliographic record for a part or section of content contained on a physical item, e.g. a single track on a recorded sound album. Enables the catalogue to provide detailed description for each part regardless of the number of parts contained on the item.
See also Host item record; Multilevel description.
1. Non-current records preserved, with or without selection, by those responsible for their creation or by their successors in function for their own use or by an appropriate archives because of their archival value.
2. An institution responsible for the acquisition, preservation, and communication of archives; also called archival agency; archive(s) service; record office. Archives 1. and 2. are, also, called after the type of institution whose records they acquire, e.g. national, college/university, etc.
3. The building or part of a building in which non-current records are preserved and made available for consultation; also called archive(s) repository; archival depository. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Bibliographic description. The term bibliographic is applied here to mean a set of bibliographic data recording and identifying an item regardless of the medium or format of the item. The more specific terms such as discographic, filmographic, etc., are implied as appropriate through the use of the term bibliographic in The IASA Cataloguing Rules Based on FIAF
Broadcast. To transmit via an electronic signal via radio or television; also known as radiocast for radio and telecast for television. In the context of The IASA Cataloguing Rules broadcasting is recognised as a form of publication. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Broadcast item. Includes sound recordings, films, kines or videos: a) prepared as the source for a broadcast; b) made by a radio or television station at the time of transmission; c) audiovisual recording of a received radio broadcast or television transmission. An item that has been used as an insert during a radio broadcast or television transmission (e.g. published sound recording or video) is not a broadcast item unless it was specifically prepared as the source for a broadcast. However, a recording that was made by a radio or television station at the time of transmission and that includes such inserts is a broadcast item. Likewise, an audio visual recording of a received radio broadcast or television transmission (i.e. off-air recording) with or without such inserts is also a broadcast item. Definition based on RAD p8-10
See also Published item; Unpublished item.
Cartridge. A single core container (a double core container is called a cassette) enclosing audiovisual media (i.e. optical, grooved, or magnetic discs, tape, film) using, for tape/film media, a single spool, endless-loop configuration. Used for insertion of the medium into recorders, reader/printers and retrieval devices, the media requiring no threading or rewinding. Most audio tape cartridges contain two-channel, 8-track stereo recordings. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Cassette. An enclosed two-hub, core, or reel container (a single core is called a cartridge) enclosing film/tape/wire media with each end of the contained media being attached to one or the other hub, core, or reel. Common forms today include the compact audio cassette (introduced in 1964), the audio mini-cassette, and videocassettes. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Catalogue number (sound recording). Also known as order number or issue number. 1. The number(s), letter(s), and/or other symbols assigned to a publication by the publisher to establish a unique control of a particular publication. 2. The number, usually different from the matrix- or master-number(s), assigned by the publisher under which an item appears listed in catalogues, leaflets, and other publicity material issued by the company owning the rights to the recording. Usually common to all parts of the published item, appearing generally on each part of a multipart package as well as on the container for the multiple parts. This number may change when, or if, one or more of the parts are re-published again at a later date. Recordings have from time to time been published with the same catalogue number, both inadvertently and deliberately. Dubbings are sometimes assigned the original catalogue number, but frequently with a variant prefix or suffix. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition of "Issue number"
Cms, Cm/sec (centimetres per second). The measurement of the speed at which tape or wire recording passes through a tape or wire player. Tape speeds are based on the early standard of 30 ips (76 cm/sec). Successive improvements in tapes, head, and other equipment have permitted reductions to 15 ips (38 cm/sec) and 7½ ips (19 cm/sec) for professional tapes, and 3¾ ips (9,5 cm/sec) and 1 7/8 ips (4,75 cm/sec) for home use. In many areas ips are being replaced by the equivalent metric figures (i.e. cms or cm/sec). Extrapolated from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Ips (inches per second).
Coarse groove. Term used to describe the channel size prevalent in 2-minute cylinders, and most shellac recordings often generically called 78 rpm discs, as opposed to the microgroove used in 33 1/3 rpm LP sound recordings. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Groove; Microgroove.
Collection. 1. In archival description, an artificial accumulation of documents of any provenance brought together on the basis of some common characteristic, e.g. way of acquisition, subject, language, medium, type of document, name of collector, which may be treated for descriptive purposes as a unit under a common title. 2. In a published compilation of recordings in an album, the contents are sometimes referred to as a collection. 3. The holdings of a collecting body such as library or archive which is developed, accessioned, catalogued, preserved, stored and made accessible is also known as a collection. First definition based on the RAD
Commercial sponsor (film, television and radio). A person or corporate body who helps finance the production or broadcast of a work or programme without control over the contents of the programme. Such sponsorship is normally done in order to advertise a product or for the purposes of public relations, and usually also involves merely the purchase of a short time slot in which to present a commercial or advertisement. FIAF
See also Sponsor (film, television and radio).
Compact disc (CD). A recording medium, introduced commercially in 1983, consisting of a 12 cm/4.72-inch disc, made principally of plastic coated with a reflective metal, commonly aluminium in commercial discs, and a protective layer of lacquer. Presently used primarily for audio and CD-ROM recordings. Normally recorded and played on one side only at this time, the medium can yield up to 78 minutes of audio signal. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Compact disc-extra (CD-Extra). Format developed in the mid-1990s by Philips, Sony and Microsoft. Designed either for playback of music only with access to the audio session only on CD audio playback equipment, or for simultaneous access to audio titles and complementary multimedia applications (lyrics, images, etc.) where a CD-Extra compatible CD-ROM drive is installed on a computer system.
Compact disc-interactive (CD-I). A compact disc format developed by Philips and Sony that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-I player. ISBD (ER)
Compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM). A compact disc format that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-ROM player. ISBD (ER)
Compression. Reduction of the size of a fixed file. Compression may be ‘lossless’ where redundant information is removed in a way that allows reconstruction to the original state (e.g. a Winzip file); or ‘lossy’ where data or information which is considered to be less important or less perceptable is removed, and may not be completely or accurately reinstated (e.g. JPEG compression of fixed image files).
Copy. A duplication of a document, which may, itself, be either an original or a copy; the duplicate may be prepared simultaneously with or separately from the creation of the item copied; the copy is usually identified by function or by method of creation, e.g. preservation transfer. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Copyright. The right vested by law in the creator of a document, his/her/their heirs or assignees to publish or reproduce it or to authorise publication or reproduction thereof. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also P notice.
Cylinder (sound recording). The audio recording format invented and patented by Thomas Edison in 1877/78. Originally made of a sheet of tin foil wrapped around grooved metal (the original signal was embossed into the foil), then wax, and later celluloid. Playing time lasted from two to four-plus minutes depending on the playback speed and threads or grooves per inch. Most makes of cylinders had grooves which threaded left-handed when looked at from the heavier end of the cylinder, and were tracked from left to right when viewed from the front of the record/playback machine. The inside was usually ribbed and lightly tapered to grip the mandrel, and the general dimensions of the standard cylinder were 4½-inches in length, 2¼-inches in external diameter, and a tapered internal diameter from 1 5/8- to 1¾-inches. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Date of creation. For unpublished items, the date that the work or event was originally created or captured in some material form (e.g. date(s) of writing an original manuscript, date(s) that sound was originally recorded).
See also Date of recording.
Date of recording. Date of recording session, or date the sound was originally recorded regardless of whether or not it is subsequently published or broadcast. Note that a recording session may extend beyond a single date (e.g. a music session may continue beyond midnight, or a lengthy interview may be conducted over several separate dates).
See also Date of creation.
Dependent title. A title which by itself is insufficient to identify an item and which requires the addition of the common title, or the title of the main item or the title of the main series. Examples are section title, some supplement titles and some titles of subseries. ISBD (NBM)
Digital audio tape (DAT). A magnetic tape format which can be digitally encoded with sound from a source using the digital recording process and played back on a machine capable of reading or decoding the tape. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Digital optical recording. A capturing of data through the digital process onto a disc or other optical media which has the data fixed as a series of pits that are recorded and read by a focused laser beam. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Digital video cassette professional (DVCPro). A professional development of the DV format. Two formats, both supported by Panasonic and Philips, are on the market: DVCPro 25 (25 Mbit/sec) and DVCPro 50 (50Mbit/sec).
Disc (sound recording). A sound recording on a thin, flat circular object, usually made of shellac, vinyl, or various laminates. The signal may be either analogue or digital, and recorded/played using acoustical, electrical, magnetic or optical technology. From the RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition of "Audio disc"
Disk (electronic resource). A round magnetic device for storing information and programmes accessible by computer; may be either a rigid platter (hard disk) or a sheet of flexible plastic (floppy disk or diskette). The disk base is coated with a magnetizable material on which data can be recorded or stored along concentric tracks as small magnetic areas forming patterns of binary digits or bits. Information is written onto the disk, and read from it in a disk drive, by read/write heads mounted on arms which move rapidly across the disk. Disks are available in several diameters, the most popular being the 3,5-inch, (and formerly the 5,25-inch). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Disc (sound recording).
Document. 1. A combination of a medium and the information recorded on it or in it, which may be used as evidence or for consultation. 2. A single archival record or item. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Dolby. A family of linear noise reduction audio recording and playback circuits used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to mute unwanted audio data. The various systems of the family are incompatible, thus a Dolby A encoded recording can only be satisfactorily replayed by decoding it with a Dolby A decoder. The family includes Dolby A, Dolby B, Dolby C, Dolby Hx pro and Dolby SR. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Edition. All the copies of an item produced from substantially the same master copy and published or issued by a particular publishing agency or group of agencies. Provided that these conditions are fulfilled, a change in identity of the distributor of the item does not constitute a change of edition. For sound recordings, all the copies of an item produced from the same fixing of the sound from the same takes. Note, however that some reissues are different publications. Developed from ISBD (NBM)
Edition statement. An edition statement is a word or phrase, or a group of characters indicating that an item belongs to a particular edition, issue, release, transmission, version or variation. The edition statement may include statement of responsibility and parallel and additional edition statements. Developed from ISBD (NBM)
Electronic resource. Material (data and/or programme(s)) encoded for manipulation by computer. Includes materials that may require the use of a peripheral (e.g. a CD-ROM player) attached to a computer, and online service(s) (e.g. bulletin boards, discussion groups/lists, world wide web sites). ISBD (ER)
See also Interactive multimedia.
Emphasis. The increasing of signal-to-noise ratio of an audio recording by boosting the high frequencies during recording and de-emphasing or correspondingly attenuating them during playback. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Father. In disc manufacturing, a recording mould formed by nickel plating the master disc. The resulting metal part can be used for pressing copies (i.e. it becomes the stamper) or as the basis for production of one or more mothers to produce multiple stampers for the larger quantity production. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Field recording. Normally the by-product of research by a collector who travels into the field for the purpose of documenting some aspect of life in that location. The term commonly applies to sound recordings. Other by-products of field research may include, film or video footage, still photographs, and related documentation.
Film (moving image). A series of still images collected onto a flexible and transparent piece of film so that they can be projected in a rapid sequence so as to give the illusion of motion. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994 Extract from definition of "Motion pictures"
See also Sound track film.
Fonds. The whole of the documents, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or corporate body in the course of that creator’s activities or functions. In archival description the fonds is the highest level of description in a multilevel description. A fonds may contain two or more separately acquired consignments of material. Similarly an acquired consignment of material may contain more than one fonds. Based on the RAD
Groove. In audiovisual media, the channel cut, embossed, or pressed into a recording medium (i.e. cylinder, disc, film) which carries the encoded signal. Such a groove may be blank (unmodulated) or recorded (modulated), or a combination of both. A cut recording contains only one groove cut, or embossed, spirally from the beginning to the end of the item, but it is more common to refer to this groove in the plural: grooves. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Coarse groove; Microgroove.
Host item record. Catalogue record describing an item with contents of more than one part, e.g. a recorded sound album containing several individual tracks, and to which discrete catalogue records for each part analysed are linked.
See also Analytic record; Multilevel description.
Interactive multimedia. Media residing in one or more physical carriers (e.g. a computer optical disc or videodisc) or in computer networks or systems. Interactive multimedia should exhibit the following two characteristics: 1. user-controlled, nonlinear navigation using computer technology, and 2. the combination of two or more media (sound, text, graphics, animation, and video) that the user manipulates to control the order and/or nature the presentation. ISBD (ER)
See also Electronic resource.
International Standard AudioVisual Number (ISAN). New international system in development by the International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies (CISAC) to uniquely identify audiovisual works through the application of a unique number. Based on CISAC. Draft ISAN: International Standard AudioVisual Number. (CIS Brief No. 3)
International Standard Recording Code (ISRC). A code and numerical identifier developed by the International Standards Office and adopted as an international standard in 1986 as a means of identifying all or individual parts of audio, video, or audiovisual recordings internationally throughout the life of the recordings. ISRC is intended for use by producers of audio, video, or audiovisual recordings as well as by copyright organisations, broadcasting organisations, archives, libraries, etc. Prepared and administered by ISO/TC 46, Documentation, the ISRC is formally identified as International Standard ISO 3901.Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). The 8 digit International Standard Serial Number assigned to the key-title of a serial by the International Serials Data System (ISDS). Based on ISBD (NBM)
International Standard Work Code (ISWC). New international system in development by the International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies (CISAC) to uniquely identify musical (and potentially other types of) works through the application of a unique alphanumeric code commencing with the alphabetic letter, followed by nine digits and a check digit. Based on CISAC. Draft ISWC: International Standard Work Code. (CIS Brief No. 2)
Inventory. A finding aid listing and describing in varying degrees of detail the content of one or more record/archive groups, fonds, classes, or series, usually including a brief history of the organisation and functions of the originating body, and, if appropriate, indexes. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Ips (inches per second). The measurement of the speed at which tape or wire recording passes through a tape or wire player. Tape speeds are based on the early standard of 30 ips. Successive improvements in tapes, head, and other equipment have permitted reductions to 15 ips and 7½ ips for professional tapes, and 3¾ ips and 1 7/8 ips for home use. In many areas ips are being replaced by the equivalent metric figures (i.e. cms or cm/sec).Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Cms, Cm/sec (centimeters per second).
Item. A single examplar of a manifestation. An item is a concrete entity. It is in many instances a single physical object (e.g. a single sound cassette). There are instances, however, where the entity defined as item comprises more than one physical object (e.g. a recording issued on three separate compact discs). IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Work; Expression; Manifestation.
Kit. An item containing two or more categories of material, no one of which is identifiable as the predominant constituent of the item; also designated as multimedia item (prior to the introduction of electronic multimedia). Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Label. 1. Any affixed paper, plastic, slip, ribbon, etc., connected in a permanent manner at the time of production by the manufacturer, creator, or the individual responsible for the existence of the item. 2. In disc sound recordings, normally a round paper disc affixed to the central, unrecorded surface and containing some or all of the relevant artefact documentation/identifying information (i.e. label name, catalogue number, matrix number, take number, trade mark, statement of creation and/or performance, titles, place/date of recordings, publication/copyright data, et.al.) 3. In automated record processing, a code used to identify an item of data, an area of memory, a record, or a file. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Label area (sound recording). The physical area of a recorded sound item which would normally bear the label. Sometimes the label area may lack an affixed label, and instead contain identifying information written with chinagraph pencil, or etched into the area (lacquer discs, and coarse groove and microgroove discs, etc.). For CDs the area of the disc displaying graphic design and/or text is the label area and this information is accepted as label information.
Label name (sound recording). The publisher’s name identification or trade mark, as prominently displayed on the label, of the series of recordings to which a given recording belongs. In cataloguing of published sound recordings, the label name is given as the name of the publisher. Partly fromRTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Lacquer disc. A recording disc, either single or double-sided, made with a core of metal, glass or fibre and coated with a lacquer compound, usually acetate or cellulose nitrate, into which the grooves are cut; intended for instantaneous recording. Following the use of a wax master and until direct metal mastering became prevalent, the lacquer disc was, also, the first step in the record production procedure leading to final pressed recordings. Before the introduction and acceptance of magnetic tape it was the most widely used form of instantaneous recording; also referred to as acetate disc. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Laser disc. Includes CDs and videodiscs; may be mass-produced and pre-recorded, or blank and intended for the user to record, in which case only one copy is produced. The content of these media is digitally encoded (except for video on a videodisc which is in analogue form) and etched into a reflective layer on the disc in the form of holes or pits (depressions). A laser light beam is focused on the disc as it revolves; where there are no depressions, the light beam simply moves on; where there are depressions, the light beam is reflected back into the playback apparatus, which reads the reflections and eventually converts them back into an analogue signal for playback. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Lead in/lead out. The non-data programme grooves preceding and succeeding the data programme on a disc. The purpose of such grooves is to guide the pick up or tone arm into the first recorded grooves and out of the last recorded grooves. Also known as run in/run out grooves.
See also Wax, The.
Legal deposit. Under the law of various countries, the piece(s) of materials, usually publications, required to be placed with one or more repositories. The deposit requirements vary widely from country to country. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Local access. A method of obtaining an electronic resource by use of a physical carrier, such as a disk/disc, cassette, or cartridge, designed to be inserted by the user into a peripheral attached to a computer – typically a microcomputer. ISBD (ER)
See also Remote access.
Long playing recording (sound recording) (LP). 1. A comparative term to describe the length of duration of a recording of greater duration than was previously available. The term has been used since the early days of the 20th century, first by the British company, Neophone, for its 20-inch vertical cut discs. Others which have used the phrase include Edison’s Long Playing Disc Records of 1926 (10 and 12-inch microgroove 80 rpm discs with a playing time of twelve and twenty minutes respectively); Victor’s standard groove 33 1/3 rpm Long Playing Records of 1932; and Columbia’s microgroove 33 1/3 rpm LP of 1948. 2. In usage since 1948, an analogue audio disc recording with a playing time of substantially over five minutes, normally referring to a 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 1/3 rpm microgroove disc introduced by Columbia in 1948; also called an LP. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Magnetic tape. A flat, thin strip of material either capable of being magnetically charged, or coated with particles capable of being magnetically charged, which is used for recording analogue or digital data. Magnetic tape is stored on reels, in cassettes, and in cartridges. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Master. In disc recording, a metal part recorded directly or generated from a lacquer original which may be used to generate additional metal moulds by electroforming or to press discs. Expanded from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Direct metal mastering (DMM).
Master disc. A finished disc recording in edited or approved form from which copies can be made in the recording producing process. It is used to produce a reverse copy or metal matrix which has ridges instead of grooves that is then used as a stamper for producing copies in the single-step process, or is used to produce a metal mother in the three-step process. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Master tape. A completed tape, used in tape-to-disc transfer, or from which other tape copies are produced. In commercial record production, the equivalent of the master disc and is controlled as the original recording from which all record and/or tape copies for distribution will come. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Matrix number. The number allocated to each side of a directly cut audio disc record, assigned by the record company at the time of recording, or sometimes in advance. Usually found etched, embossed, or stamped on the inside margin or centre. Generally it is a rough guide to the dating of the recording, and sometimes indicates which take or performance of several done in one session the recording actually represents. The matrix number may, also, indicate, usually in the prefix or suffix positions, additional data such as method of recording (i.e. electrical or acoustical), dubbing, recording engineer, place and original manufacturer. When dealing with records reissued under new issue numbers the matrix number is the chief means of verifying whether the reissue is the same take or performance as an earlier issue. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Take number.
Microgroove1. A generic term indicating any form of small grooved item. 2. A groove, usually on a disc or a cylinder, with nominal width at the top, or widest part of the groove, of 3 mm. 3. A type of disc audio recording having 200 to 300 or more grooves per inch, suitable for reproduction by a stylus having a tip radius of 1 mm or less. Four minute cylinders and LP recordings are microgroove, as opposed to coarse groove for two minute cylinders and discs replayed at the generic 78 rpm speed. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Coarse groove; Groove.
MPEG. Acronym for Moving Pictures Expert Group. The term MPEG refers to a series of international standards for digital video and audio bit rate reduction. Different MPEG standards apply to different levels of digital and decoding technology.
Multilevel description. A method of bibliographic description allowing for the presentation of information relating to an item which forms part of a multipart item or collection of items. This is based on the division of descriptive information into two or more levels. The first level contains information common to the whole or main publication. The second and subsequent levels contain information relating to the individual volume or other unit. ISBD (NBM)
See also Analytic record, Host item record.
Noise reduction. Circuits, systems, and/or a combination of same, designed to reduce subjective noise generated or added by the recording or transmission system on/in sound and/or picture quality. Extracted from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
NTSC-M. The colour television standard used in the U.S., Japan, and elsewhere (mainly the Pacific basin area), prepared by the National Television Systems Committee of the Electronics Industries Association, using 525 lines, 60 fields, and 30 frames per second. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also PAL colour system; SECAM television standard
Other title information. A word or phrase, or group of characters appearing in conjunction with, and subordinate to, the title proper of an item. Other title information also occurs in conjunction with and subordinate to, parallel titles, variations of the title proper, part of volume titles, titles of individual works contained in the item, titles of series, or of sub-series. Other title information qualifies or explains or completes that title to which it applies or is indicative of the character, contents, etc., of the item of the works contained in it, or is indicative of the motive for, or the occasion of, the item’s production. The term includes sub-titles and avant-tîtres, but does not include variant titles (e.g. spine titles) found in the item. ISBD (NBM)
P notice. Associated information relates to ownership of recording rights on a physical item. The copyright symbol p followed by a date is known as the p notice or phonogram date. It has variant meanings under different copyright conventions and laws but generally indicates the first date of the sound recording. Based on ISBD (NBM)
PAL colour system. The colour television system developed in Germany which has 625 lines, 50 fields, and 25 pictures per second; with one of the colour signals reversed in polarity between alternate lines. The standard used in Australia, Europe (except France and Eastern European countries), parts of Africa and Asia (e.g. India, China), and parts of South America. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also NTSC-M; SECAM television standard.
Parallel title. The title proper (or title of an individual work given in an item with no collective title proper) in another language and/or script; or the title in another language and/or script presented as an equivalent of the title proper. Parallel titles also occur in conjunction with the titles proper in series/subseries statements. ISBD (NBM)
Prescribed punctuation. Punctuation supplied by the bibliographic agency to precede or enclose the information in each element (except the first element in Area 1) or Area of the bibliographic description. ISBD (NBM)
Preservation copy (Archive copy). The artefact designated to be stored and maintained as the preservation master. Such a designation may be given either to the earliest generation of the artefact held in the collection, to a preservation transfer copy of such an artefact, and/or to both such items in the possession of the archive. Such a designation means that the item is used only under exceptional circumstances (e.g. to prepare a duping copy). Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Access copy (Reference copy); Duping copy.
Pressing. 1. The process whereby a machine flattens, compresses, and squeezes materials to a predetermined shape such as an LP record. 2. Any item produced in such a process. 3. The items produced via such a process at a given time (i.e. the initial pressing was 1,000 LPs; the second pressing was 5,000 LPs). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Principle of provenance. The archival principle that the records or documents of a person, family or corporate body must be kept together in their original order, if it exists or has been maintained, and not be mixed or combined with the records or documents of another individual or corporate body. Based on the RAD
Production. 1. An imprecise term used to describe the multiple steps involved in making all the original material that is the basis for a finished sound recording and/or moving image creation. 2. A completed moving image creation and/or sound recording. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Production company (film, television and radio). May either: 1. Determine the content and form of the work and take responsibility for its manufacture and production; or 2. Be responsible only for the manufacture and production of the work, where there is, in addition, a sponsor. FIAF
Production company (sound recordings). 1. The firm responsible for the fixing of the sound at a recording session; and/or 2. The firm responsible for the mass production of the sound recording (e.g. pressing of discs or replication of tape copies). From ISBD (NBM)
Provenance. The person(s) or office(s) of origin of the fonds, i.e., the person(s), family (families), or corporate body (bodies) that created and/or accumulated and used the records or documents in the conduct of personal or business life. RAD
Publication (Issue, Release). Usual use of term is for commercially issued, mass-produced items. The terms issue, release, commercial issue or commercial release are synonyms for publication and usually apply to mass-produced sound recordings available for purchase by the public.
See also Published item.
Published item. Includes: 1. Mass-produced and commercially issued sound and video recordings, laser discs, interactive multimedia and local electronic resources, etc.; 2. Sound recordings generated as part of the (commercial) production process such as acetate masters, production masters, back up production masters (industry safety tapes), metal parts (mothers, masters, stampers, direct metal masters) and test pressings; 3. Releases of private, processed, custom or personal pressings for limited circulation, such as school speech nights, edited ethnographic field recordings, etc.; and 4. Other items produced for commercial public distribution (e.g. prints for cinema screenings, intellectual and artistic content released through the Internet and other remote electronic resources).
See also Broadcast item; Unpublished item.
Quantisation. In analogue to digital conversion, to assign one of a fixed set of values to an analogue signal as part of an analogue to digital process. For example in pulse code modulation, an analogue signal is sampled and quantised, and a corresponding set of binary pulses is produced. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
1. The flanged hub, or spool, made of various materials (i.e. metal, glass, plastic, or combinations) for holding recorded tape, film, or similar strip materials.
2. The resulting roll of such materials. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Remote access. A method of using an electronic resource when there is no physical carrier to be handled by the user. The resources are stored on large storage devices maintained mechanically or by a computer technician, including hard discs on microcomputers. ISBD (ER)
See also Local access.
Sampling frequency (sampling rate). The rate or frequency at which an analogue signal is analysed during the D/A (digital to analogue) conversion; generally expressed in Hertz. FromRTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition for "Sampling rate"
SECAM television standard. The 625 line, 50 fields, 25 frames per second colour television standard developed in France which utilises a single-frequency modulated subcarrier for transmission of the chrominance channel; used in France, Eastern Europe, Sovereign States of the former U.S.S.R. most French speaking African, and most Arabian countries. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also NTSC-M; PAL colour system.
Section title. The title specific to a section which serves to distinguish one part of a group of related series having a common title. The section title is dependent on the common title for identification of a series whether distinctive or not. ISBD (NBM)
Serial. A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. In broadcast usage, a group of programmes with their story-line continued from episode to episode. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Series. A group of separate items related to one another by collective features (marks). The items may be intended for use in the sequence they are produced or not, and may be numbered or unnumbered, in production, broadcasting or other forms of publication. Such a group of items may be a finite series (complete) or an open-ended series (ongoing and therefore incomplete). Partly from FIAF
1. A level of description.
2. File units or records within a fonds or collection arranged systematically or maintained as a unit because they relate to a particular function or subject, result from the same activity, have a particular form, or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, or arising out of their receipt and use. RAD
Series (catalogue numbers). Alpha and/or numeric sequence chosen and applied by some record companies to their products to identify and manage recordings according to different categories (e.g. by content, by price range).
Series statement. The main elements identifying a series, including any numbering of the separate items within the series. Also includes a statement that an item forms part of a multipart item. ISBD (NBM)
See also Subseries statement.
Shellac. 1. A term sometimes used interchangeably with 78 rpm, to modify the term disc. 2. A thermoplastic resin used as the basic ingredient in the production of disc recordings until supplanted by various vinyl formulations with the advent of the microgroove LP disc. Shellac discs could be solid shellac stock or laminated onto a board, fibre, plastic or paper core. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Single (sound recording). A published 45 rpm analogue disc recording usually containing one title per side; the selection lasting approximately three (3) minutes duration. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also CD (single).
Sound recording. 1. An artefact which has been constructed and used for the specific purpose of storing a representation of energy for the further purpose of reproduction in the audio portion of the spectrum. 2. The fixation of audio signals onto an appropriate carrier, such as cylinder, disc, tape, film, electronic file, or other medium. 3. The artefact resulting from such fixation. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
SPARS-Code. Recording industry codes developed by the Society of Professional Audio Recording Studios (SPARS). These often appear on CDs and indicate the encoding of the three generations of
2. mixing/processing, and
3. reproduction. A = Analogue, D = Digital, X = Unknown. Hence: DDD, ADD, AXD, etc.
Sponsor (film, television and radio). A person or corporate body who commissions and/or finances the production of a work, usually for other than theatrical exhibition, and almost always for furtherance of public relations, or similar purposes. Typically the sponsor exercises some measure of control over the artistic and/or intellectual content of the work. From FIAF
See also Commercial sponsor (film, television and radio).
Stamper. The metal mould used in mass production of some materials (i.e. stamping or pressing disc sound recordings, injection moulding of polycarbonate plastic optical discs). The negative of a positive copy (a mother) of a master recording (generally made of metal by electroforming) from which final disc pressings are stamped in record processing. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Statement of responsibility. Name(s) or phrase(s) relating to the identification and/or function of any persons or corporate bodies responsible for or contributing to the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work or its realisation in the item or in the series of which the item forms a part. ISBD (NBM)
Subseries designation. Word or lettering or numbering or a combination of these, following the title of the main series, which can stand alone or in conjunction with the title of the subseries. ISBD (NBM)
Subseries statement. The main elements identifying a subseries, including any numbering of the separate items within the subseries. In the case of a subseries the title of which is dependent on the titles of the main series the subseries statement includes both the title of the series and the subseries, and may include a subseries designation. ISBD (NBM)
See also Series statement.
Take number (sound recording). Number following a matrix number to identify a different performance (i.e. take) of the same work by the same performer(s) during a recording session.
See also Matrix number.
Track. 1. The path on a magnetic tape on which the signal is recorded. 2. Sometimes used interchangeably with cut or band to indicate an individual recording on a sound carrier (grooved disc, tape, CD, etc.). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Track configuration. For magnetic tape, the relative position of the active recording area references to the entire cross-section surface of the magnetic recording medium. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Transfer. 1. To convey or transmit from one medium (or format) to another (e.g. an audio signal from a wax cylinder to a magnetic tape). 2. The resulting artefact from such action. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Copy.
U-matic. The Sony trade name for a semi-professional, ¾-inch composite videotape format in a cassette; also refers to the recording of PCM-coded digital audio signals, used in some areas in the mastering of CDs. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
U-matic H. The Sony trade name for a broadcast quality, semi-professional, non-segmented field ¾-inch, composite videotape format in a cassette recording system in which each television field is recorded onto a single track. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Uniform resource locator (URL). An address system for locating an electronic resource on a computer network. A URL consists of a service identifier followed by a specified protocol that is used to obtain a desired resource (e.g. http://www.ieee.org/index.html). ISBD (ER)
Uniform title. Supplied title to bring together all catalogue entries for a work when various manifestations (e.g. editions, translations, expressions or realisations) of it have appeared under various titles.
Unpublished item. Includes: 1. Unedited, unpublished, non-processed, unissued, unreleased or not broadcast audiovisual items; 2. Stock shots; 3. Unpublished electronic resources; 4. preservation, working or reference copies created in-house by an archive or collecting institution.
See also Published item; Broadcast item.
Video cassette recorder (VCR). A consumer cassette format, forerunner of VHS and Video 2000 (14,5 x 12,5 x 5 cm, tape width 13mm). No longer successful on the market. Not to be confused with the same term applied generically to indicate domestic video playback equipment.
Videotape. 1. Magnetic tape intended for recording video and/or audio signals and from which playback is possible. 2. A television or video recording on magnetic tape with or without sound. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Vinyl. 1. Abbreviation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 2. Imprecisely used to refer to any of a number of plastics, many of which are not appropriate for use in preservation. 3. A contemporary slang term for a disc record. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
Work. A distinct intellectual or artistic creation. A work is an abstract entity; there is no single material object one can point to as the work. We recognize works through individual realizations or expressions of the work, but the work itself exists only in the commonality of content between and among the various expressions of the work. IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Expression, Manifestation, Item.