IASA Cataloguing Rules

print edition | web edition | Reglas de Catalogación de IASA

 

The IASA Cataloguing Rules (IASA 1999)

Ed. by Mary Miliano.

International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives
IASA Editorial Group. ISBN 87-7507-252-l

www.iasa-web.org/cataloguing-rules

Table of contents

Information about IASA

The International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA) is an international non-governmental association, maintains operational relations with UNESCO, and was founded in 1969.

Purpose

The association supports the professional exchange of information and fosters international co-operation between audiovisual archives in all fields, especially in the areas of:

  • acquisition and exchange
  • documentation
  • access and exploitation
  • copyright
  • conservation and preservation

IASA membership

About 380 members from almost 50 countries represent a broad palette of audiovisual archives which are distinguished by their focus on particular subjects and areas, e.g. archives of all sorts of musical recordings, historic, literary, folkloric and ethnographical sound documents, theatre productions and oral history interviews, bioacoustic, environmental and medical sounds, linguistic and dialect recordings as well as those for forensic purposes.

Information and communication

The IASA Journal is published twice a year containing special contributions, reports and reviews. News of interest to the Association is published in the Information Bulletin which appears quarterly. Members receive both publications free of charge. Back issues are available in limited numbers.

IASA maintains a website which includes links to many related sites as well as current information. Here you will also find The IASA Cataloguing Rules as an electronic publication: http://www.iasa-web.org/

IASA activities

A yearly conference gives members the opportunity to meet and exchange news and information by open presentations, workshops, round tables, exhibits and demonstrations. The venue changes from year to year and is not restricted to a particular country or continent.

Further information is available from

Secretary-General, IASA
Gunnel Jönsson
Radio Archive
Swedish Broadcasting Resources
SE-10510 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 784 15 35
Fax:     +46 8 784 22 85
e-mail: gunnel.jonsson@srf.se

Members of The IASA Cataloguing Rules Editorial Group

Mary Miliano - Convenor ScreenSound Australia, Canberra
Olle Johansson - Secretary Arkivet för ljud och bild, Stockholm
Danièle Branger Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris
Chris Clark The British Library National Sound Archive, London
Maria Pilar Gallego Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid
+34 91 577 5634 (fax)
Frank Rainer Huck Saarländischer Rundfunk, Saarbrücken
Elsebeth Kirring Statsbiblioteket, Aarhus

 

Acknowledgements

These rules present the combined effort of the Editorial Group. Individuals and smaller teams within the group were engaged with drafts of specific chapters, and contributed discussion and undertook proofreading of the whole work through every stage of its progress. We thank in particular Olle Johansson for his excellent work in preparing and formatting the original draft through various revisions to the final text.

We thank the IASA Board, which commissioned this work, and especially Sven Allerstrand (President), Albrecht Häfner (Secretary-General), Gerald Gibson and James McCarthy (Past Presidents), and the institutions represented by Editorial Group members, for their continuous support and encouragement throughout the development of The IASA Cataloguing Rules.

We thank Sten Hedberg (Uppsala University Library) for kind assistance with questions concerning cataloguing of electronic resources; Malcolm Tibber and Angela Marriot (Music Alliance, London) and Elisabeth Iles (IFPI Secretariat, London) for their contributions on mechanical copyright and on international standard numbering systems to identify works, sound recordings and audiovisual recordings; Ron Brent and Penelope Cottier (ScreenSound Australia) for their legal perspective on copyright; Grace Koch (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies) for advice on rights of traditional owners and the illustrative example; Nancy Seeger (Library of Congress) for assistance in obtaining copyright registration examples; Beth Robertson (Mortlock Library of South Australiana) for her most kind encouragement on the 1997 Draft for Comment and recommendations to expand terms relating to oral history; Dr David Rentz (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra) for guidance on constructed titles for wildlife recordings; Prof. Margarete Payer (Hochschule für Bibliotheks- und Informationswesen, Stuttgart) and Eeva Murtomaa (Helsinki University Library) in particular for their special focus on terms and definitions from the work of the IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; Dr Issam El-Mallah (Oman Centre for Traditional Music) for his comment and assistance on the full example which uses Arabic script; Dr Florence Gétreau (Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires, Paris) for consultation on the ethnographic collection multilevel entry and corresponding analytic entry examples; Ian Gilmour (ScreenSound Australia) for his gracious and generous assistance over many months with physical description and related technological questions; Cathy Bromley, Matthew Davies, Joe Kelly (ScreenSound Australia), George Boston (UK) and Martin Elste (Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung, Berlin) for detailed and useful comments on physical description, and Martin Elste, again, for additional comments relating to discography; Dr. Rainer Lotz (Vice-Chair, IASA Discography Committee) especially for his contribution on matrix numbers and Ross Laird (ScreenSound Australia) for the use of his text on Sound record catalogue numbers in the Introduction.

We thank Anne Cooper and staff of Audio Services (ScreenSound Australia) for the original draft of Terms for Describing the Physical Condition of Sound Recordings (App. C), Dr Dietrich Schüller and Franz Lechleitner (Phonogrammarchiv der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna), and Dr George Brock-Nannestad (Denmark) for their further comment and contributions to it, and Ian Gilmour for assistance with its final editing, Gerald Gibson (Library of Congress) for introducing to us the draft Glossary of Terms Related to the Archiving of Audiovisual Materials, and Dr. Trudy Huskamp-Peterson (Archives of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees), in particular for highlighting the ISAD(G) to us, and for the idea of including guidance on describing items in terms of condition and conservation.

We thank Lasse Vihonen (Yleisradio, Helsinki), Harriet Harrison (Library of Congress, Washington D.C.), Dr Helga Thiel (Phonogrammarchiv der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna), Dr Armgard Schiffer (Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz) and Dr Rainer Hubert (Österreichische Phonothek, Vienna), for their earlier participation, the many colleagues in our institutions for their contributions, and all respondents to the 1997 Draft for Comment.

We thank Sara Weale and Iestyn Hughes (National Library of Wales) for their work and support in mounting the electronic version of the 1997 Draft for Comment and final publication on the IASA Web site, and Kathrine Whatley at the British Library Corporate Design Office for her design of the cover and title page.

This work is intended to harmonise with the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition and the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Non-Book Materials: ISBD (NBM) and much of the text in this work is based on these publications. Additional publications have also been drawn on to assist the preparation of The IASA Cataloguing Rules. Reference codes used are included here. We thank the copyright owners of the following for their kind permission to use their work:

The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, is the copyright of American Library Association, Canadian Library Association and The Library Association. Extracts in this work are reproduced with the permission of the United Kingdom publisher, Library Association Publishing, London, on behalf of the copyright holders. AACR2

Extracts and adaptions from International Standard Bibliographic Description for Non-Book Materials: ISBD (NBM), Second Edition, from the ISBD (ER): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources and from the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Draft Report for World-Wide Review are used with permission of the International Federation of Library Association and Institutions, Universal Bibliographic Control and International MARC Programme. ISBD (NBM); ISBD (ER); IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)

Extracts and adaptions from the FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives and from the ISBD (ER): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources are used with the permission of K.G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Co. FIAF; ISBD (ER)

Extracts and adaptions from Association for Recorded Sound Collections, Associated Audio Archives, Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings are used with permission of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections. ARSC

Extracts and adaptions from the Bureau of Canadian Archivists, Planning Committee on Descriptive Standards. Rules for Archival Description, Ottawa, 1996 are used with permission of the Bureau of Canadian Archivists and the Canadian Council of Archives. RAD

The adapted text (1.F.1.3) and use of examples 9 and 10 (1.1.B.1) from Guidelines for Bibliographic Description of Interactive Multimedia are used with permission of the American Library Association. Guidelines for Interactive Multimedia

Extracts from MAVIS Data Entry Guidelines (unpublished) are used with the permission of ScreenSound Australia (formerly National Film and Sound Archive, Canberra). NFSA MAVIS Data Entry Guidelines

Many of the terms in the Glossary are extracted or modified from the Glossary of Terms Related to the Archiving of Audiovisual Materials prepared by a Working Group from the Round Table of Audiovisual Records (not yet published), with the permission of UNESCO. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Examples 23 (7.B.14.1), 6 (7.B.17), 18 (7.B.18), and 5 (7.B.29), and the adapted text (7.B.33) from Matters, Marion (comp.), Oral History Cataloging Manual are used with the permission of Society of American Archivists. OHCM

Examples 2 (3.B.2.1), 2 (3.G.4), 10 (7.B.12) are developed from label illustrations in the Australian Record and Music Review issue nos 6 (July 1990), 8 (Jan 1991), and 10 (July 1991) with the permission of the editor and publisher, Mike Sutcliffe.

Information in example 4 (7.B.22) from UCLA's ORION Information System. Copyright 1990, The Regents of the University of California is used with permission of The Regents of the University of California.

Mary Miliano
Convenor, The IASA Cataloguing Rules Editorial Group

Introduction

Sound recordings

"Sound recordings are the embodiment of all kinds of sounds in some enduring material form, thus permitting them to be repeatedly perceived, reproduced, broadcast or otherwise communicated." WIPO Glossary, p. 240.

With regard to recordings of music and published literature, many different performers may record the same work e.g. Georgia on My Mind, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, or Shakespeare's Tempest. Also the same performer(s) may record the same work more than once. In each case, although the original work is the same, its realisation in sound will always be different every time that it is recorded. Hence each new recording is different.1

 

Footnotes:

1.Note: Often a recorded performance or event is simply referred to as a recording. Implicit here is the content of the recording, not its physical format for which the terms physical item or item are used

2. Coarse groove era here means the period from the 1890s to the 1960s, when recorded sound discs were predominantly made of shellac, and the playback speed of which may or may not have been standardised at 78 rpm.

3.Microgroove era here means the period when vinyl discs were manufactured and distributed, from 1948 to the 1990s.

4. CISAC. Draft ISWC : International Standard Work Code. - (CIS Brief No. 2). p. 1

5. CISAC. Draft ISAN : International Standard AudioVisual Number. - (CIS Brief No. 3). p. 1.

6. indecs (interoperability of data in e-commerce systems) http://www.indecs.org/results/persons.htm

7. Single-sided discs are recorded on one side only. The other or B side is blank.

Sound recording history

During the early period of sound recording, first with cylinders (Edison, 1877) and a little later with early discs (Berliner, 1887) and discs of the coarse groove era a performance or event was recorded as a one-off take during a recording session, and without the possibility to improve or edit the content of that particular recording.

To improve on a take an entire repeat performance was necessary. Each separate recording was, therefore, a separate sound recorded event. With the introduction of discs, matrix numbers were usually allocated by the recording company and often etched or stamped into the wax. The wax is the name given to the area between the grooves and the label on disc formats. Matrix numbers were used to identify master recordings. They were often added to the stamper during the production process, and are usually visible on the final pressing which was generally mass-produced for publication and sale to the public.

On occasions when another take was considered necessary to improve on the performance, a new matrix number would be allocated to the next disc, or a new take number added to the existing matrix number. Take numbers were applied incrementally and appear after the matrix number, sometimes preceded with a hyphen. As with matrix numbers, take numbers may be numeric or alphabetic.

Each recording company applied its own matrix and take number system, and without a good knowledge of the company in question, it is sometimes difficult to identify a matrix and take number. The following made up examples, however, illustrate some of the types of systems used by record companies to apply take numbers:

 

A1234-1 A1234-2 A1234-3
A1234A A1234B A1234C
1234 1234-A 1234-B
1234 1235 1236
1234 1234-x 1234-xx

 

Occasionally special symbols such as an x in a circle, triangle, or square have been used to indicate takes. (Note that with some record companies though, these types of geometric symbols, or other characters in circles located after or near the matrix number, were used to indicate the type of electrical system used for making the recording rather than the take.)

The best performance was then selected for publication and the corresponding matrix number (and possibly take number) would usually appear on the final product. With record companies selling and buying businesses, the record label and catalogue number on the different publications could change for the same recording over time. The matrix and take numbers (almost without exception) would, however, remain constant for that particular sound recording.

For discs produced during the coarse groove era then, the matrix and take numbers usually uniquely identify the particular recorded performance or event.

The opportunity to edit the audio content of a sound recording came as early as 1898 with wire recordings. However, the techniques, associated with editing wire were developed more extensively with the introduction of tape in 1934 (which became commercially available from 1937). Audio tape presented the possibility of editing by splicing for the first time. Today, there are many editing techniques: multi-tracking, patching, mixing and remixing the tracks (with the possibility of also including additional new tracks made in a later recording session).

Digital technology also allows sampling and a kind of 'virtual reality' by superimposing various recordings to create a new work through the ear and hand of the sound engineer.

The sound which is eventually fixed is what is then recognised as the recording. Another remixed or digitally remastered version, or an edited extract, used for instance as an audio clip in an interactive multimedia product, or as an example during a lecture, radio programme, interview, etc., is effectively a new recording for the purposes of identifying it usefully within an audiovisual collection.

Consequently, the usefulness of the matrix number to positively identify a particular sound recording has waned for post coarse groove era audio formats. Its usefulness to identify the side of an unlabelled disc through the production process has, however, continued through the microgroove era at least.

In the 1980s the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) was developed by the International Federation of Phonographic Industries (IFPI) and standardised as ISO 3901:1986. This code is similar to ISBN in structure and purpose and is designed to uniquely identify each individual recording. It has been implemented in many countries. Other standard numbering systems under development at the time of writing and which are relevant to audiovisual archives are: International Standard Work Code (ISWC) to identify "any musical composition from songs to symphonies to advertising jingles"; and the International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) to identify "audiovisual works from television shows to films to multimedia product … transmitted to worldwide audiences via broadcast, satellite, cable, on-line services and the Internet". These are being developed by International Confederation of Authors' and Composers' Societies (CISAC) as part of the Common Information System (CIS). Unique identifiers for persons as contributors to sound recordings (i.e. as authors or performers) are also under development.

Such numbering systems will be essential metadata components within fully automated archives, such as digital mass storage systems, but are not so vital to the traditional approach addressed by these rules. In any case, the numbers are intended to be digitally encoded on the recording and will therefore be invisible to the human eye without specialised decoding software. However, some record companies have printed ISRCs on the packaging, and these should be recorded in Area 8, e.g. DE-A14-93-514-00.

Appropriate cataloguing treatment of sound recordings and related audiovisual items

An archive or cataloguing agency may sometimes need to determine the most appropriate cataloguing treatment of audiovisual material, both within the context of the original work, and its performance, realisation or expression, and/or within the role and function of the archive itself.

Where a format for a moving image item is being described, it is anticipated that cataloguing rules appropriate to cataloguing film (e.g. the FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives) would usually apply.

There may be some cross-over or other type of relationship between moving image and recorded sound formats, however, and the following suggestions are given.

Where a film sound track for a moving image item occurs on disc, as with early sound film; or where physical components for a pre-composite film print are being described (including a film sound track on magnetic audio tape) it is recommended that the the item be catalogued in its capacity as a moving image item.

If, however, a sound recording item were merely captured on U-matic video (sometimes used as an early digital sound format) or on a sound track film format, it is recommended that the item would be catalogued in its capacity as a sound recording.

In each of the above cases, where additional specialist guidance for the physical description of the material is needed, it is recommended that appropriate specialist cataloguing rules for that type of medium be consulted.

Similarly, where a copy of the film sound track from a film production is edited and commercially published as a sound recording (e.g. in LP or CD format) this would be catalogued as a sound recording. In this case the recording would usually be edited to a shorter duration than the film sound track for the film production. It would therefore be a different recording from the original film sound track, and so not considered as part of the moving image item.

An amateur or home video of an opera production on stage may be intended to simply record the event of the performance. As with a sound recording, the main emphasis in cataloguing will therefore be on the created work (i.e. composer and title) and the particular live performance or expression itself (i.e. the opera company, conductor, and performers involved, and the date and place of the event). The medium of moving image coincidentally requires the appropriate general material designation of videorecording, and a physical description for the video. In addition the name of the person who shot the video may also be documented in the catalogue record.

In other instances, for example where a film production is intended to have an opera story complete with musical performance as the story, (e.g. Rosi's 1984 feature film Carmen) the resulting film would need to be catalogued as though it is a film production rather than as a performance of a musical work alone. As such the emphasis in the catalogue record would be on the title of the film with prominence given to the composer (if prominent in the opening credits), as well as to the film director, film producer, cinematographer, country of origin, production company and production date. The major vocal artists (star cast) at least, and the conductor would also be included, usually as a note.

Therefore, while the archive's and their clients' information retrieval requirements must be considered when cataloguing audiovisual materials, there are also other factors to consider. These include the necessity to discern the intention behind, and extent of creative input to, the final product to determine the best cataloguing approach for the material, the appropriate cataloguing rules to use, and the information to be highlighted as significant (see also 0.0.1.2-0.0.1.4).

In addition, each audiovisual medium (and often each format as applied within that medium) is part of an audiovisual culture unique to itself. In turn, that audiovisual culture is related to its historical era, and to the type of content (including duration of the recorded piece and its genre or style) in the format. The ability to recognise and respond appropriately to each particular era and culture relating to the various audiovisual media and formats is also necessary for cataloguing purposes.

With today's new technology and media, some moving image and electronic resource products could be considered as a contemporary means for communicating content which may otherwise have been exclusive to the recorded sound and radio media of the past (e.g. video histories vs oral histories; music videos vs long play recordings or singles; film or television productions of opera and ballet vs sound recordings and radio productions; and sound excerpts in interactive multimedia and other electronic resources). For this reason, film, video, television and electronic resources are also briefly addressed in these rules.

Analytic and multilevel emphasis

Audio content on early sound recordings was of very short duration (usually not longer than 4 minutes, e.g. wax cylinders, discs of the coarse groove era). Often composed musical works were abridged to fit into such a short playing time or were spread over several sides with carefully planned breaks for changing sides or discs. Frequently recordings on cylinders and single-sided discs were coextensive with the physical item.

Later, with double-sided discs, two (and sometimes more) separate recordings were contained on the one physical item.

Traditionally, in discography and in early gramophone library catalogues, the individual recordings would be described separately, and each description would include some piece of key 'linking' information back to the physical disc (e.g. label and catalogue number). Record shops and some sound recording libraries and archives traditionally filed their collections of published sound recordings (discs) on the shelf according to size, label and catalogue number.

With the introduction of the LP and EP, and more recently the DAT and CD, a single physical item could contain several recordings, and this multiplicity is increased with today's audio mass storage systems, and digital jukebox systems.

There are three methods to describe multiple recordings on a single item:

1. A contents note may be used to list the recordings contained on the physical item, which in itself is described as a unit (see 7.B.25);

2. A multilevel entry may be prepared for each recording. Multilevel description potentially provides scope to give more information about a recording than normally may be entered in a contents note. The multilevel structure is hierarchical, and the descriptions for the recordings are presented in the same order as the recordings occur on the physical item(s) (see 9.2); or

3. A discrete analytic entry for each recording may be prepared and then linked to the host item(s). The hierarchical structure of the multilevel approach is not a requirement for analytic cataloguing. Sometimes the same recording will occur on more than one host item. Thus the one analytic entry for a recording may be linked to as many host items as contain that particular recording (see 9.1). Also the use of a discrete analytic entry for each recording potentially allows a full bibliographic description complete with access points for the recording; it minimises duplication of effort to describe the occurrence of the same recording on more than one physical item; and, when a computer is used for cataloguing it allows for flexibility in producing lists and other reports such as discographies, catalogues, listings and carrier contents listings for tapes, DATs or CDs. These items may be published, unpublished, or broadcast items, or in-house archival preservation copies, dubbing masters or reference copies. (Note that an in-house copy may be a one-to-one copy or a new compilation in its own right, depending on the policy and procedures employed by the archive or cataloguing agency.)

The traditional layout of discographies has pre-empted the analytic approach, e.g.

BESSIE SMITH

Clarence Williams, piano
New York City, February 16, 1923
80863-5 DOWN HEARTED BLUES Col. A3844; CBS CG 33
80864-3 GULF COAST BLUES Col. A3844; CBS CG 33

(In this example, the main artist Bessie Smith features as the heading. Clarence Williams provides piano accompaniment. The place and date of the recording session are shown as in New York City on February 16, 1923. Following are separate lines for each recording showing (left to right) matrix and take number, the title, and publication details given as the record label and catalogue number. Here, both recordings are shown as having been published twice, as two labels and catalogue numbers occur after each title.)

It is the cataloguing agency's or archive's choice whether to apply multilevel or analytic cataloguing or not, or whether to include contents notes or not. These choices will depend on matters such as the volume of material to be brought under basic control and/or catalogued in full; the human and financial resources available to do this work; the priorities, commitments and goals of the archive or cataloguing agency; and the information retrieval requirements of the institution and its clients.

Personal and corporate names

Generally, names may be considered in two main groups for the purposes of cataloguing: personal names and corporate names.

Personal names have two broad categories of their own in relation to sound and other audiovisual recordings:

1. a) persons who have created the work that is interpreted and performed (e.g. composers, librettists, lyricists, authors, translators),

1. b) persons who create, collect or capture the recording (in the case of field recordings of ethnographic or wildlife content or environmental and mechanical sounds), and

2. contributors or participants who perform or realise the work, i.e. whose voices or instruments we hear on the recording (e.g. performers, singers, instrumentalists, interviewees, interviewers, speakers).

Corporate names also apply to creators and/or performers in relation to sound and other audiovisual recordings (e.g. orchestras, groups, bands, publishers, producers, broadcasters, distributors).

Record labels

Published sound recordings, which are mass-produced for commercial release, normally have printed labels affixed to the surface of the disc, spool or cassette. These labels denote the brand or trade name which the record company uses to market the recording, and also indicate the holder of the recording rights (i.e. the record company). Record companies often market sound recordings under a variety of labels. The different labels are designed to appeal to different sectors of the market, and to promote different types (styles, genres) of recordings. Labels have also been used to indicate pricing levels, e.g. whether a prestigious (expensive) first release or a budget (inexpensive) re-release.

Record labels are also bought and sold by companies, so that over time a particular label (and the recording rights associated with it) may pass through various ownerships.

For sound recordings, it is the record label which is presented as the publisher of a commercially issued (i.e. published) sound recording (see 3.D.2).

Although, not part of the information to be included in Area 3, the record catalogue number (which sometimes includes a prefix and/or suffix) for a published sound recording is inextricably associated with the label name. Record catalogue numbers are given in Area 8 together with the label name in The IASA Cataloguing Rules.

Sound record catalogue numbers

As record label and catalogue number information are always closely associated with each other, the following information about the development of the use of catalogue numbers is given here.

The catalogue number is any number used by the record company to identify a specific recorded sound item for ordering or stock control and sales purposes. Catalogue numbers have been applied to published sound recordings from the earliest commercial releases of cylinders.

The earliest discs were all one-sided. The catalogue number was therefore often the same as the matrix number for these discs. However, some single-sided discs also had specific catalogue numbers.

When double-sided discs were introduced (ca. 1905) many were given a separate catalogue number for each side. This proved a cumbersome method for identifying the discs and a single catalogue number soon became common to both sides of the disc.

Some discs, especially from the pre-1930 period however, also had a separate number to identify each side of the disc. This was known as a face number, and often appeared in addition to the catalogue number and to the matrix number. E.g., many early HMV discs display face numbers.

From the 1930s onwards, record catalogue numbers became more standardised and are usually easy to identify. Often a simple number was all that was used, but commonly a prefix of one or more letters was added to identify various series on the same label or just to make the plain number specific to that particular label. Less commonly, there were alpha-numeric prefixes and/or a suffix.

With the introduction of different disc formats, such as 45 rpm and LP records, the dominant types of records marketed in the 1950s, there was often a need to distinguish between different formats of the same recording (which might exist on both a 78 rpm and a 45 rpm disc) or to indicate different sizes of long-playing records (such as 10 inch and 12 inch LPs). This led to more complex catalogue numbers which frequently included prefixes and/or suffixes.

In the 1980s some discs (mainly LPs) began to show a variety of different numbers, including order numbers and other stock-control numbers, sometimes making it difficult to distinguish which is the actual catalogue number. There was also a tendency to use computer-generated numbers, usually a long sequence of digits. Later, the development of international standard numbering systems resulted in the use of codes (to identify the format) being part of the catalogue number (e.g. "-1" at the end of a number to indicate a vinyl disc, "-2" to indicate a CD, and "-4" to indicate a cassette release - all of the same published release of the recording).

Terminology

The terms published, unpublished and broadcast are used throughout The IASA Cataloguing Rules. They are broad categories which are defined and applied as follows:

Published items are produced for distribution to the public on a commercial scale; e.g., mass-produced and commercially issued or released sound recordings or electronic resources available for purchase through retail outlets or by mail order from commercial or trade catalogues; film productions distributed as prints for public screening in cinemas, or as mass-produced videos for purchase through retail outlets, or hire for limited periods.

Such items are usually attractively packaged and/or appealingly promoted. The packaging itself can lend a form of identity to an item to be catalogued (e.g. limited edition disc in sequined cover; cassette in breakfast cereal box).

Note that material available through some computer networks, e.g. the Internet, is also included in this definition.

Unpublished items are not mass-produced and are not available for commercial distribution (e.g. field recordings, oral history recordings, privately made recordings). They are usually unique, the only additional copies being in-house archival preservation copies, dubbing masters or reference copies. These items do not have the attractive packaging of published material and may lack adequate identification in the form of a label, or documentation on the item or its container.

Broadcast items are not mass-produced as a physical format. However, broadcasting is a form of publication as it is a means of publicly disseminating information. In audiovisual archives, these items normally comprise programme tapes (audio or video) or kinescope films (early sound/image TV recordings), do not have the attractive packaging of published material in many cases, and may lack adequate identification in the form of a label, or documentation on the item or its container. Information about the content of these items may sometimes be found only in scripts, national or regional programme listings, or in the announcements which form part of the recorded programme itself.

Bibliographic description. The term bibliographic description is applied here to mean a set of bibliographic data recording (i.e. documenting) and identifying an item regardless of the medium or format of the item. The more specific terms such as discographic and filmographic are implied as appropriate through the use of the term bibliographic in these rules.

Copyright and restrictions

Copyright legislation varies from country to country, but it always exists on more than one level for sound recordings. The range of rights which may apply includes recording rights, mechanical rights, performing rights and moral rights. Rules for documenting these are to be found at 3.F.1.5-3.F.1.7 and in Area 4.

With the increase in electronic commerce as a direct consequence of digital storage and distribution of sound recordings there are, at the time of writing, several international and regional initiatives underway which seek to standardise the various copyright elements outlined above in the form of machine-readable codes and numbers (e.g. ISWC, ISAN). It is too early to make provision for these developments in this first edition of The IASA Cataloguing Rules but such developments are being followed closely by IASA and Area 4 of these rules may therefore be substantially altered in the future.

In addition, special rights or restrictions may apply in the case of recordings from traditional societies, relating to ownership of the content by the society. These recordings are not always subject to or protected by national copyright legislation. Often these recordings are unpublished. It is a matter of professional ethics for archives and cataloguing agencies to acknowledge, document and observe such rights or restrictions.

Similarly, access to other unpublished recordings, e.g. oral histories, may also be restricted at the request of the person(s) recorded, and again it is the responsibility of the archive to acknowledge, document and observe any restrictions of this type.

Unauthorised editions

IASA does not condone the practice of making unauthorised, pirated, bootleg, etc., recordings. It is recognised, however, that sometimes an unauthorised or suspected unauthorised recording may be received by an audiovisual archive, e.g., a copy of the original release of Bob Dylan's Great White Wonder double album.

When cataloguing such material, any information to be recorded about the illegality of the item should be confirmed to be correct as far as possible, and supported in a cataloguer comment (see 7.B.35), to eliminate any future implication of liability for the archive or cataloguing agency.

0: Preliminary notes

Rules

Area 0: Preliminary notes:

0.0. Scope, purpose and use

0.0.1. Scope

0.0.1.1. Primary emphasis : cataloguing sound recordings

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.0.1
Based on FIAF 0.1.1

The IASA Cataloguing Rules specify requirements for the description and identification of sound recordings and related audiovisual media, assign an order to the elements of the description and specify a system of punctuation for that description. They are designed for use by sound and audiovisual archives as a guide in the preparation of cataloguing records and as a standard for the exchange of bibliographic information concerning sound and related audiovisual materials. Their provisions relate to the bibliographic records for sound and audiovisual archives in general, and may require elaboration in more specialised archives whose holdings are exclusively of a single format or type, e.g. radio programmes, advertisements, sound effects, wildlife recordings, ethnographic recordings, music.

Here the term audiovisual encompasses sound recordings, moving and still images.

The IASA Cataloguing Rules’ primary emphasis is on sound recordings, in particular:  

  • audio formats (published, unpublished and broadcast);
  • moving image formats where these could be considered to be a natural extension of audio formats (e.g. music videos, musical performances on laser disc ), or related to audio (e.g. simultaneous FM radio and television broadcasts); and
  • electronic resources (e.g. interactive CD-ROMs, audio content in jukeboxes and mass storage systems).

Special emphasis is given to information that is appropriate to include for different types of content on sound recordings and related audiovisual materials as identified above. Options and alternatives are presented to assist archives and libraries in deciding on the most suitable approach to cataloguing their collections, in order to meet the requirements of public service and archival imperatives.

The IASA Cataloguing Rules are designed to harmonise with the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. - 2nd ed., and the International Standard bibliographic description (Non-Book Materials) and to be able to be used in MARC or other cataloguing systems.

They address cataloguing issues concerning sound recordings and their natural extensions into other audiovisual media in more depth than AACR2. Briefly, the additional issues are cataloguing of unpublished and broadcast recordings, extra emphasis on copyright (Area 4) and greater emphasis on analytic and multilevel description (Introduction and Chapter 9). Additionally a chapter on item /copy level information (Chapter 10) is included, while appendices respectively cover the concepts of fonds and collection level cataloguing and terms and definitions for common conditions relating to sound recordings.

This work therefore does not seek to duplicate existing cataloguing rules and guidelines, but is intended to be compatible with and complement them, and to focus freshly on a variety of issues of particular relevance to sound and audiovisual archives.

Still images, paper based media, and remote access electronic resources as complete systems are not addressed in these rules.

0.0.1.2. Cataloguing of moving and still images

The FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film archives and Betz, Elizabeth, Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items in Historical Collections have already been published, and to a considerable extent already address the cataloguing of moving and still images respectively. These should be referred to in the first instance for cataloguing of moving and still images.

Clearly, where a sound recording is contained in a moving image format , or alternatively a recorded sound format is an integral part of a moving image work, it will be necessary to discern which are the appropriate rules to apply for cataloguing the item . For some discussion on this see Appropriate cataloguing treatment of sound recordings and related audiovisual items in the Introduction to these rules.

0.0.1.3. Cataloguing of electronic resources

Furthermore, the Guidelines for bibliographic description of Interactive Multimedia and ISBD (ER): International Standard bibliographic description for Electronic Resources have been published and should be referred to for detailed guidance on cataloguing electronic resources. In particular, ISBD (ER) should be consulted for cataloguing of remote access systems as a whole.

0.0.1.4. Fonds and collection level cataloguing

These rules also cover the concept of fonds and collection level cataloguing to the extent that it may apply to cataloguing of sound recordings and related audiovisual archives and collections. ISAD(G) : General International Standard Archival Description; Bureau of Canadian Archivists, Rules for Archival Description; and Hensen, Stephen L. (comp.), archives, Personal Papers and Manuscripts: A Cataloguing Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies and Manuscript Libraries should be referred to for in-depth guidance on cataloguing a fonds or collection, and its series and files.

0.0.1.5. Analytic description

Analytic description is addressed in these rules. It is an especially important concept for cataloguing sound recordings. This is because individual sound recordings are usually grouped together on a particular sound carrier, and over time, the same sound recordings may be recombined in variant groupings on new carriers, or in remote access electronic resources available on the Internet , in a mass storage system or in a jukebox.

Analytic description permits a single analytic record for the individual sound recording to be linked to the catalogue record(s) for one or more host item (s).

0.0.1.6. Multilevel description

Multilevel description is also addressed in these rules. Multilevel description has traditionally been used in archives and cataloguing agencies which apply the technique of fonds and collection level cataloguing. Depending on the information retrieval requirements and cataloguing policies and resources of the particular archive or cataloguing agency concerned, multilevel description may or may not extend to the level of the individual recording.

0.0.1.7. Descriptive cataloguing and choice of access points

Developed from FIAF 0.1.3, para 2

These rules address bibliographic description for the purpose of identification of sound and audiovisual materials in a catalogue.

These rules do not address choice of access points, nor the development of authority files.

Subject access to materials is not addressed here, as it is understood that most countries would have their own subject thesaurus.

Rules for standardising personal and corporate name headings and for choosing names as access points are not addressed here. For guidance in establishing name access points and name authority records, archives should refer to the national or multinational codes, and to the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) publications, such as Form and Structure of Corporate Headings (for establishing name headings), and to the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., and Library of Congress Cataloging Service Bulletins (for establishing name headings and choosing names as access points).

Name information appearing on record labels and accompanying documentation and packaging is proven to vary considerably for the same name from source to source. It is therefore recommended that appropriate and scholarly reference works (e.g. specialised reference works and encyclopaedias, discographies, bio-discographies, etc.) and established name authority files be consulted to confirm correct spelling and data elements for name headings, as well as to assist with preparing useful see and see also references.

0.0 2. Purpose

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.1.2

The primary purpose of The IASA Cataloguing Rules is to establish a norm in audiovisual archives for describing sound recordings conformant with other schemes for bibliographic description. The intention behind this primary purpose is to ensure that the cataloguing of sound recordings can be easily and efficiently incorporated into mainstream cataloguing activity.

The purpose of The IASA Cataloguing Rules, therefore supports that outlined in ISBD (NBM), 2nd ed.:

"to (A) make records from different sources interchangeable, so that the records produced in one country can be easily accepted in the library catalogues or other bibliographic lists of another country; (B) assist in the interpretation of records across language barriers so that records produced for users in one language can be interpreted by users of other languages; and (C) assist in the conversion of bibliographic records to machine-readable form."

FIAF 0.1.2, last para

For this reason every effort has been made to follow ISBD (NBM) wherever possible, particularly with regard to the prescribed order of descriptive elements and punctuation.

0.0.3. Use

0.0.3.1. Framework

Based on FIAF 0.1.3

The rules are intended to provide a framework for the maximum amount of descriptive information required in a range of archival cataloguing activities within a great variety of national and local environments. The elements of description listed in Rule 0.B. are therefore grouped into two categories, mandatory (if applicable) and optional or alternative. The elements listed as mandatory are essential for the effective exchange of bibliographic information, while archives and cataloguing agencies are encouraged to include as many of the optional elements as the information retrieval requirements of the institution and its clients, and resources permit.

0.0.3.2. Presentation of The IASA Cataloguing Rules and application of automation

The IASA Cataloguing Rules are primarily concerned with presentation of output rather than method of input, and so were written to be applied by sound and audiovisual archives regardless of the type, or even existence of, an automated system.

0.0.3.3. Preliminary rules

Preliminary rules are given at the beginning of Areas 1-8, Chapter 9 and 10. These are to:

a) reconfirm the punctuation preceding or enclosing each element of the description in the area/chapter, where appropriate;

b) reconfirm sources for information to use in that area/chapter; and may also

c) establish any general parameters (e.g. in Area 7) on how the rules which follow are to be applied.

In the case of this third category, any parameters given as preliminary rules are not necessarily intended to serve in place of the more specific rules which follow.

0.0.3.4. Citation of source materials throughout The IASA Cataloguing Rules Rules drawn from, or corresponding with, rules in other cataloguing standards or guidelines are sourced in The IASA Cataloguing Rules. For ease of use and comparison, an indication is given as to whether the rule is based on; developed, adapted, extended, extracted or extrapolated from the source or corresponding rules; or on rare occasions, is a variant rule.

0.A. Source of information

A suitable basis for the description of sound recordings, videos and interactive multimedia can usually be found in the accompanying documentation and container packaging. This information is usually fuller than that which can be accommodated on the relatively small area of the label or, depending on the medium, other normally designated ‘chief’ source of information.

Also, information printed on labels and on accompanying documentation or containers is sometimes inaccurate. Where resources permit it is recommended that cataloguers should check information on older published items against extant scholarship, e.g. discographies (see also 0.F).

Moreover, in the case of unpublished and broadcast material, the best written information about content may not be available from written information on/in the item itself, or its accompanying documentation or container. Resources such as field notes, contents listings, interview summaries or transcripts, correspondence, broadcast programme schedules (published) or programme documentation (privileged information held by the broadcaster), as well as the audiovisual content of the item itself may be required to develop a description. For this reason, the terms ‘chief’ and ‘prescribed’ sources of information are not used in these rules.

0.A.1.1. Sources of information for Areas 1-3, 6 and corresponding areas in Analytic and multilevel description (Chapter 9)
Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2

Take information recorded in these areas, and corresponding areas in Analytic and multilevel description , from:

the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);

  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying documentation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist’s worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);
  • a container that is an original part of the item (e.g. sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from
  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher’s or distributor’s brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film , tape box for storing audio tape), or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate (see 7.B.3).

Note: Title and performers from audio announcement

Note: Title and script writer from radio script. Performers and characters from back announcement on recording

Note: Title, performers and series from audition. Opening and closing theme and announcements missing. Assumed to be an episode of the radio serial "Dr Paul"

Note: Title from sleeve

Note: Description from field notes

Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4

Enclose information in square brackets only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information:
is known, or
is at least probable, and/or
in the case of title information, has been devised in the absence of a title in the sources of information, and/or constructed from available or known information.

Where this information is uncertain give a question mark after it.

Title: [Shark attack described by teenage male victim]

Title: [Clavichord? music]

0.A.1.2. Sources of information for Areas 5, 7 and 8, and Item/copy information according to Chapter 10
Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.5.2 para 2

Take information recorded in Areas 5 (Physical description), 7 (Notes), and 8 (Numbers and terms of availability) and as Item/copy information according to Chapter 10 from any appropriate source, including the item itself.

0.A.1.3. Sources of information for Area 4

For information recorded in Area 4, see 4.A.2.

0.A.1.4. Sources of information for items lacking collective title information
Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.5.1

In cataloguing an item comprising different works and lacking collective information pertaining to the whole item , treat the sources of information for the different works as if they were a single source. A common example would be a sound disc with a different label on each side

0.A.1.5. Sources of information for an item in several parts
Based on AACR2 1.0H2

Describe an item in several physical parts from information corresponding to the first part. If the first part is not available, use the first part that is available. If there is no discernible first part, use the part that gives the most information or best collective information (e.g. container). Show variations in the sources of information of subsequent parts in notes.

For kits, where the different components have individual sources of information, prefer the source that provides information that applies to the item as a whole and that includes a collective title.

0.A.1.6. Sources of information where the item is presented in different aspects
Based on AACR2 1.0H1 c)

If the information corresponding to the item presents the item in different aspects (e.g. as an individual item and as part of a multipart item), prefer the source that corresponds to the aspect in which the item is to be treated by the archive or cataloguing agency.0.A.1.7. Sources of information for recorded sound formats generated from the production process for a published sound recording

As with unpublished and broadcast materials, recorded sound formats from different stages of production (e.g. master tapes, metal mothers, test pressing s), may also be lacking in visible information.

Where the details for the corresponding published sound recording are available, base the information to describe a production format on the best available information which corresponds to the published sound recording. Include a note indicating the means of identification:

Note: Matrix numbers on metal mothers correspond with those on commercially released recording. Description based on details from published recording
(Example of two metal mothers corresponding to the two sides of a published disc)

Note: catalogue number and contents listing on master tape box corresponds with side B of commercially released recording. Description based on details from commercially released recording
(Example of one master tape corresponding to one side of a published disc).

Note: Test pressing with catalogue number only on plain white label. Description based on details from published recording and audition

Note: Promotional disc with "Not for sale" instruction pasted over commercial label. Description based on details from published recording

Note that a later release (publication) of the same sound recording will involve new recording rights, even if the publisher is the same. Moreover, a later release on a different label may also indicate a different publisher (and again different recording rights). Later releases, therefore, will normally require their own separate bibliographic descriptions.

0.B. Elements of description

0.B.1. Order of the elements of description

Developed from ISBD (NBM) 0.3.2
Developed from FIAF 0.2

The order of the elements of description is based as closely as possible upon the order prescribed in the ISBD (NBM). Elements are grouped into the following:

1. Title and statement of responsibility
2. Edition, issue, etc.
3. Publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., and date(s) of creation
4. Copyright
5. Physical description
6. Series
7. Notes
8. Numbers and terms of availability

The elements which appear in each area are set out in the following Outline. Not all areas will apply when describing individual items. For instance, Area 2 (edition) will not apply to unpublished items, while different parts of Area 3 (Publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., and DATe(s) of creation) will apply depending on whether the item is published, broadcast or unpublished, and Area 6 (Series) will only apply where the material described relates to a series.

Where analytic or multilevel description is employed, Chapter 9 (Analytic and multilevel description ) will apply. Where description of individual items/copies of the same physical item is employed, Chapter 10 (Item/copy information) will apply. For definitions of the terms, see the rules for each chapter and the Glossary.

0.B.2. Outline of the elements of description
Developed from ISBD (NBM) 0.3.2
Extracted from FIAF 0.2 (Area 4 element)

Precede each area, other than the first, with a period, space, dash, space (. - ) unless the area begins with a new paragraph. ISBD elements are underscored in the following list.

Area Prescribed punctuation for preceding or enclosing the element

Element

 
1. Title and statement of responsibility area   1.1 Title proper
  . 1.2 Part, number, supplement or section of title proper
  [ ] 1.3 General material designation
  = * 1.4 Parallel title
  : * 1.5 Other title information
    1.6 Statements of responsibility
  /   First statement
  ;   * Subsequent statement(s)
       
2. Edition, issue, etc. area   2.1 Edition, issue, etc. statement
  = *2.2 Parallel edition, issue, etc. statement
    2.3 Statements of responsibility relating to the edition, issue, etc.
  /   First statement
  ;   Subsequent statement(s)
  , *2.4 Additional edition, issue, etc. statement
    2.5 Statements of responsibility following an additional edition, issue, etc. statement
  /   First statement
  ;   * Subsequent statement(s)
       
3. Publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc. and Date(s) of creation area   3.1 Place of publication... distribution, etc.
  ;   First place
* Subsequent place(s)
  : *3.2 Name of publisher... distributor, etc.
  [ ] *3.3 Statement of function of publisher... distributor, etc.
  , *3.4 Date of publication... distribution, etc.
  ( *3.5 Place of manufacture
  : *3.6 Name of manufacturer
  ,) 3.7 Date of manufacture
    3.8 Date(s) of creation (unpublished/unbroadcast materials only)
4. copyright area ; *4.1 Date of copyright or p notice
       
5. Physical description area and extent of item   5.1 Specific material designation
  : 5.2 Other physical details
  ; 5.3 Dimensions of item
  + *5.4 Accompanying materialstatement
  ( ) *5.5 Detailed qualifying information for each element
       
6. Series area (Note: A Series statement is enclosed by parentheses. When there are two or more series statement s, each is enclosed by parentheses.)   6.1 Title proper of series or sub series
  = *6.2 Parallel title of series or subseries
  : *6.3 Other title information of series or subseries
    6.4 Statements of responsibility relating to the series or subseries
  /   First statement
  ;   *Subsequent statement(s)
  , 6.5 International Standard Serial Number of series or subseries
  ; 6.6 Numbering within series or subseries
  . *6.7 Enumeration and/or title of subseries
       
  , 6.8 Dependent title following a section or subseries designation
7. Note area      
       
8. Numbers and terms of availability area   *8. I Numbers
  : *8.2 Terms of availability and/or price

General notes on the framework:

i) Elements in italics are optional.
ii) Elements preceded by an asterisk (*) can be repeated when necessary.
iii) Areas 7 and 8 can be repeated when necessary.
iv) In the above outline, the terms "first statement....", "subsequent statements(s)...", and the like, denote the order in which these statements are to be given in the description and have no other connotation.
v) No provisions are included in The IASA Cataloguing Rules for the ISBD (G) Area 3 (Material (or type of publication) specific area), or the ISBD (ER) Area 3 (Type and extent of resource area).
vi) Whenever information normally associated with one area or element appears in the item is linked linguistically as an integral part of another area or element, it is transcribed as such.

Organisation of the description of a catalogue entry

Example

catalogue entry

 

 

0.C. Punctuation

Based on AACR2 1.0C1

Precede each area, other than the first, or each occurrence of a note or number, by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ) unless the area, note or number begins a new paragraph.

Precede or enclose each occurrence of an element of an area with standard punctuation as outlined above, and also prescribed at the head of each area.

Precede each mark of prescribed punctuation by a space and follow it by a space, except for the comma, full stop, hyphen and double hyphen and closing parentheses and square brackets. The comma, full stop, hyphen, double hyphen and closing parentheses and square brackets are not preceded by a space; the opening parentheses and square brackets are preceded by a space.

Precede the first element of each area, other than the first element of the first area or the first element of an area beginning a new paragraph, by a full stop, space, dash, space. When that element is not present in a description, precede the first element that is present by a full stop, space, dash, space instead of the prescribed preceding punctuation for that element.

Indicate an interpolation (i.e. data taken from outside the prescribed source(s) of information) by enclosing it in square brackets. Indicate a conjectural interpolation by adding a question mark within the square brackets. Indicate the omission of part of an element by the mark of omission (...). Precede and follow the mark of omission by a space. Omit any area or element that does not apply in describing an individual item ; also omit its prescribed preceding or enclosing punctuation. Do not indicate the omission of an area or element by the mark of omission.

When adjacent elements within one area are to be enclosed in square brackets, enclose them in one set of square brackets unless one of the elements is a general material designation , which is always enclosed in its own set of square brackets.

Skaterdater [GMD] / [produced by] Marshal Backlar
but
[London : BBC, 1979]

When adjacent elements are in different areas, enclose each element in a set of square brackets.

[2nd ed.]. - [London] : Thomsons, 1973

When an element ends with an abbreviation followed by a full stop or ends with the mark of omission and the punctuation following that element either is or begins with a full stop, omit the full stop that constitutes or begins the prescribed punctuation .

261 p. : 24 cm. - (Canadian Ethnic Studies Association Series ; v. 4)
not
261 p. : 24 cm.. - (Canadian Ethnic Studies Association Series ; v. 4)

When punctuation occurring within or at the end of an element is retained, give it with normal spacing. Prescribed punctuation is always added, even though double punctuation may result.

Quo vadis? : a narrative from the time of Nero

0.D. Levels of detail in description

Based on AACR2 1.0D

The elements of description in the rules provide for a maximum set of information. This rule sets out three recommended levels of description each containing those elements that must be given as a minimum by archives and other cataloguing agencies choosing that level of description. Choose the level of description on the basis of the purpose of the catalogue or catalogues for which the entry is constructed, and the resources available to carry out the work.

Include the minimum set of elements for all items catalogued at the chosen level when the elements are applicable to the item being described and when, in the case of optional additions, the archive or cataloguing agency has chosen to include an optional element.

0.D.1. First level of description

Adapted from AACR2 1.0D1 For the first level of description, include at least the elements set out below:

Title proper / first statement of responsibility. - edition statement. - First publisher, etc., date of publication, etc. - copyright. - Extent of item . - Note(s). - Number(s).

0.D.2. Second level of description

Adapted from AACR2 1.0D2 For the second level of description, include at least the elements set out below:

Title proper [general material designation ] = Parallel title : other title information / first statement of responsibility ; each subsequent statement of responsibility - edition statement / first statement of responsibility relating to the edition . - First place of publication, etc. : First publisher, etc., date of publication, etc. - copyright. - Extent of item : other physical details ; dimensions. - (Title proper of series / statement of responsibility relating to series , ISSN of series ; numbering within the series . Title of subseries, ISSN of subseries ; numbering within subseries). - Note(s). - Number(s). 0.D.3. Third level of description
AACR2 1.0D3
For the third level of description, include all elements set out in the following rules that are applicable to the item being described.

0.E. Language and script of the description

Based on AACR2 1.0E1, 1.0H1

In the following areas give information from the sources of information (see 0.A) in the language and script (wherever possible) in which it is presented:

Title and statement of responsibility
Edition, issue, etc.
Publication, production, broadcast, distribution, etc., and date(s) of creation Series

Where the sources of information have written, spoken, or sung in more than one language or script, prefer (in this order):

(i) information in the language or script of the written, spoken, or sung words if there is only one such language or script or only one predominant language or script.

(ii) information in the original language or script of the work if the words are in more than one language or script, unless translation is known to be the purpose of the publication, issue, etc., in which case use the source in the language of the translation.

(iii) information in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency, or that occurs first in the following list: English, French, German, Spanish, Latin, any other language using the roman alphabet, Greek, Russian, any other language using the Cyrillic alphabet, Hebrew, any other language using the Hebrew alphabet, any other language.

Replace symbols or other matter that cannot be reproduced by the facilities available with a cataloguer's description in square brackets. Make an explanatory note if necessary.

In general, give interpolations into these areas in the language and script of the other data in the area. Exceptions to this are:

a) prescribed interpolations and abbreviations
b) general material designations
c) other forms of the place of publication
d) statements of the function of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc.

If other data is Romanised, give interpolations according to the same Romanisation.

Give all elements in the other areas (other than the titles and quotations in notes) in the language and script of the cataloguing agency.

0.F. Inaccuracies

Varied from ISBD (NBM) 0.10
Varied from AACR2 1.0F1

See also: 9.0.B.2 If the written information in the sources of information is misspelt or inaccurate, supply the correct spelling or accurate word, and give a note indicating that the error has been corrected.Title: Greek salad
Note: The item incorrectly states: Greek salad

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.10
Based on AACR2 1.0F1
Alternatively, in an area where transcription from the sources of information is required, transcribe the inaccuracy or misspelled word as it appears in the item . Follow such an inaccuracy either by [sic] or by i.e. and the correction within square brackets. Supply a missing letter or letters in square brackets.

Some of me pomes [sic] / by Pam Ayers

The Paul Anthony Buck [i.e. Brick] lectures

What your child really wants to know about sex and why / by Will[i]am A. Block

0.G. Accents and other diacritical marks

AACR2 1.0G1Add accents and other diacritical marks that are not present in the data found in the source of information in accordance with the usage of the language used in the context.

0.H. Capitalisation

Extrapolated from AACR2, Appendix A
Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.8

These rules and their examples follow capitalisation standards from the ISBD (NBM), and Appendix A in the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. - 2nd ed. That is, to capitalise the first letter of the first word in an area, sentence, of a parallel, alternative or section title, and of the first letter of proper nouns and additional words according to the appropriate usage in the language in which the material is catalogued.

Extracted from FIAF 0.7 Alternatively, archives or cataloguing agencies may choose to follow any established standard rules for capitalisation.

0.I. Examples

Extracted from AACR2 0.14
Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.9
The examples used throughout these rules are illustrative and not prescriptive. That is, they illuminate the provisions of the rule to which they are attached, rather than extend those provisions. Most examples are based on the description of existing items, but some fictitious examples have been included.

The terms, words or short phrases added to examples are in English in The IASA Cataloguing Rules. However, it is anticipated that when these rules are applied, these terms, words and short phrases will be given in the official language of the archive or cataloguing agency.

0.J. Abbreviations

Abbreviations used are those prescribed in Appendix B of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. - 2nd ed., and for playback speeds given in metric terms, from the Association for Recorded Sound Collections - Associated Audio Archives, Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings.

0.K. Alternatives and options

Developed from AACR2 0.7Some rules are designated as alternative rules or as optional additions and some other rules or parts of rules are introduced by Optionally.

Rules or parts of rules flagged by the word Alternatively, acknowledge that different solutions to a problem, and differing levels of detail and specificity are appropriate in different contexts.

Rules or parts of rules flagged by the word Optionally indicate an optional addition or rule which may be applied to further enhance or clarify mandatory information.

Similar concepts may appear to be covered in more than one place in these rules. This is to provide the greatest level of flexibility for choosing appropriate policies, practices and procedures by archives and cataloguing agencies for similar or related information, in more than one possible area. For instance, some notes in Area 7 dealing with physical description, condition, conservation and preservation treatment, sound quality, copy being described, source of the material, would apply in the body of the cataloguing record if only one item or copy is described in each cataloguing record, while this information may be better handled according to Chapter 10 where more than one copy is held.

It is the archive's or cataloguing agency's choice to decide which alternatives and options to apply as policy, and which other alternatives or options to apply on a case by case basis.

1: Title and statement of responsibility

1.A. Preliminary rule

1.A.1. Punctuation
Developed from ISBD (NBM) Area 1, Punctuation pattern
Precede the title of a supplement or section by a full stop, space (. ).
Enclose the general material designation in square brackets ([]).
Precede each parallel title by a space, equals sign, space ( = ).
Precede each unit of other title information by a space, colon, space ( : ).
Precede the first statement of responsibility by a space, slash, space ( / ).
Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility by a space, semicolon, space( ; ).
For the punctuation of this area for items without a collective title, see 1G.

1.A.2. Sources of information
Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2
See also: 1.B.1.6, 1.B.7.1, 1.B.7.10
Take information recorded in this area from:

  • the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);
  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying documentation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist's worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);
  • a container that is an original part of the item (e.g. sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from
  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher's or distributor's brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film, tape box for storing audio tape), or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate (see 7.B.3).

Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4Enclose information in square brackets only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information:
is known, or
is at least probable, and/or
in the case of title information, has been devised in the absence of a title in the sources of information, and/or constructed from available or known information.  

Where this information is uncertain give a question mark after it.

1.A.3. Order of information
From AACR2 1.1A2

Give the data elements in the order prescribed in the following rules, even if this means transposing data. However, transcribe the data as found if case endings are affected, if the grammatical construction of the data would be disturbed, or if one element is inseparably linked to another.

1.B. Title proper

AACR2 Glossary Title proper is the chief name of an item , including any alternative title but excluding parallel titles and other title information.

1.B.1. General rule

1.B.1.1. Transcription
AACR2 1.1B1
Extracted from AACR2 1.1B7
Transcribe the title proper exactly as to wording, order, and spelling, but not necessarily as to punctuation and capitalisation. Give accentuation and other diacritical marks that are present in the source of information. Urban hymns

Around the world in a day

Fourth symphony

Friede auf Erden, op. 13

Politisches Abendstudio

Tendens

The ghosts of Versailles

Highlights from Rigoletto

All my hummingbirds have alibis

Communism and the Cold War

Stockholm multimedia sightseeing

Maritime communications  

When no title at all can be found, supply or devise a title and enclose it in square brackets (see 1.B.7).

1.B.1.2. Title proper for musical performances
Adapted from AACR2 5.1B1
If a musical performance lacks a unique title, and the title merely consists of the name(s) of one or more type(s) of composition, or one or more type(s) of composition and one or more of the following: medium of performance
key
date of composition
number

treat type of composition, medium of performance, etc., as the title proper (see also 1.B.7.10). Rhapsody

Songs & folk music

Violin-Sonaten

Symphony no. 3, A major, op. 18

Scherzo for two pianos, four hands If, however, a musical performance has a unique title and the sources of information also give medium of performance, key, date of composition, and/or number, give the unique title as title proper and treat the following elements as other title information (see 1.E). Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg

Sinfonia mazedonia

Little suite

Georgia moon 1.B.1.3. Alternative Title
AACR2 Glossary
Developed from AACR2 1.1B1

See also: 1.C.2. An alternative title is the second part of a title proper that consists of two parts, each of which is a title. Either the parts are joined by the word or (or its equivalent in another language and/or script), or the alternative title is written within parentheses. Precede and follow the word or by a comma. Keep the parentheses. Capitalise the first word of the alternative title. Hallberg's surprise, or, Not even the old masters can feel safe

Dog days (City morgue blues)

Die Streichholzschachtel, oder, Ursprünge philosophischen Denkens

Ludwig, ou, Le crépuscule des dieuxDo not confuse alternative titles within parentheses with extended title information given in brackets, as is often the case with popular music. Give, however, the additional information in the parentheses Come back (before you leave)

(Do you get) Excited?

1.B.1.4. Punctuation marks
AACR2 1.1B1
If the title proper as given in the source of information includes the punctuation marks ... or [ ], replace them by - and ( ), respectively.Cha cha cha-
(Source of information reads: Cha cha cha...)

-for your exquisite delight
(Source of information reads: ...for your exquisite delight) < 1.B.1.5. Symbols that cannot be reproduced
Based on AACR2 1.1B1
If the title proper as given in the source of information includes symbols that cannot be reproduced by the facilities available, replace them with a cataloguer's description in square brackets. Make an explanatory note if necessary.En [pizza] i Jordbro
(Source of information shows a picture of a pizza) 1.B.1.6. Title proper from a secondary source
Based on AACR2 1.1B1
If the title proper is taken from a secondary source of information, give the source of the title in a note, if appropriate (see 1.A.2 and 7.B.3). 1.B.2. Title proper including a statement of responsibility
AACR2 1.1B2

See also: 1.F.3, 1.F.13If the title proper includes a statement of responsibility or the name of a publisher, distributor, etc., and the statement or name is an integral part of the title proper (i.e. connected by a case ending or other grammatical construction), transcribe it as part of the title proper.Lucia Negro plays Robert Schumann

Best of John Lee Hooker & Canned Heat

Solyom spelar Mozart

Thank you ABBA

Prince live!

Heifetz in performance

Stéphane Grappelli en concert à San Francisco1.B.3. Title proper consisting solely of a name
AACR2 1.1B3
If the title proper consists solely of the name of a person or body responsible for the item , transcribe such a name as the title proper.The Rolling Stones

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Paul Hindemith

Gainsbourg 1.B.4. Abridging a long title proper
AACR2 1.1B4

See also: 1.E.3 Abridge a long title proper only if this can be done without loss of essential information. Never omit any of the first five words of the title proper (excluding the alternative title(. Indicate omissions by the mark of omission ( ...).Le fer et la hache pygmée ...
(Source of information reads: Le fer et la hache pygmée et le petit villageois)

Singende Muse an der Pleisse ...
(Source of information reads: Singende Muse an der Pleisse in 2

mahl 50 Oden, deren neuesten und besten musicalischen Stücke,

mit denen dazugehörigen Melodien) Optionally, transcribe the remainder of the title in a note (see 7.B.6).1.B.5. Title proper with special design
AACR2 1.1B5
If a letter or word appears only once but the design of the source of information makes it clear that it is intended to be read more than once, repeat the letter or word without the use of square brackets. African Art = Art Africain
(Source of information reads: African Art Africain) 1.B.6. Title proper including separate letters or initials
Expanded from AACR2 1.1B6
If a title proper includes separate letters or initials without full stops between them, transcribe such letters without spaces between them. GANIL

If such letters or initials have full stops between them, transcribe them with full stops and omit any internal spaces. L.S.O.

A poem by T.S. Eliot

E.T. If the sources of information of the item are inconsistent, which is often the case with audiovisual recordings, choose either full stops or not, but be consistent.

1.B.7. Supplied titles
Developed from AACR2 4.1B2
Expanded from NFSA MAVIS Data Entry Guidelines (various sections)
Developed from FIAF 1.1.2.2.5, 1.5.2.6
See also: 1.B.1.1

1.B.7.1. General rule Where the title cannot be established from any source of information according to 1.A.2, it is necessary to supply one.

Where a title is supplied on the basis that it is known, or has been positively or probably identified, enclose the title in square brackets, and include a note explaining the source of information (see 7.B.3). Where the information is uncertain give a question mark after it.

[String quartet, no. 12] / Shostakovich
Note: Title identified from audition and reading of score

If no title can be found in any source, and it is not possible to positively or probably establish the title, it is necessary to devise a title. Where a title must be devised by the cataloguer there are two types of titles to consider:

  • devised descriptive titles for recordings which have no given titles
  • uniform, standardised or conventional form titles for specific categories of recordings

Enclose all devised titles in square brackets.

Note that for some classes of material, it may be appropriate for an archive or cataloguing agency to always supply a devised uniform, standardised or conventional title (see 1.B.7.1.2). 1.B.7.1.1. Devised descriptive titlesDevised descriptive titles should describe the recording as succinctly as possible and may include the topic, place, person and date as appropriate. Enclose the devised title in square brackets: [Bid for the 2004 Athens Olympics]

[Malta's Prime Minister, Mr Mintoff, talks on the renewal of British bases on the island, 1972-03-27]

[President Nixon's visit to China, 1972-02-18--1972-02-28]

[Mémoire orale sur le mont Lozère] 1.B.7.1.2. Uniform, standardised or conventional form titles
See also: 1.B.7.1
Uniform, standardised or conventional form titles are constructed and supplied according to the requirements of the content. These may be applied when a large amount of similar material is being catalogued, or if the archive or cataloguing agency is also specifically designed to support a particular area of study or interest (such as a scientific, ethnographic or traditional materials archive). Enclose the whole title in square brackets. Following are suggestions for developing uniform, standardised or conventional form titles for different categories of material.

The categories of material following are broadcast news, advertisements, field recordings (oral histories, other interviews, recordings with traditional or ethnographic content, wildlife and bio-acoustic recordings), sound effects and mood music, musical works, musical/theatrical improvisations, edited recordings, excerpts, and incomplete recordings. 1.B.7.2. Broadcast news
See also: 06_02 Construct the title with television or radio station call sign, or station name if better known, followed by the term news, and date. Time of broadcast or bulletin name may be added where appropriate. Enclose the whole title in square brackets (see also 1.B.10). [2XX news. 1984-02-04]

[Imparja news. 1992-10-12]

[TCN 9 news. 1993-07-30. Daybreak]

[BBC news. 1972-06-30. 18:00] 1.B.7.3. Advertisements or commercials, elections and other political campaign advertisements, community service announcements, promos and station idsConstruct the title with the term Advertisement followed by product / service / campaign / organisation name, slogan and/or jingle and/or id number and/or advertisement description. Enclose the whole title in square brackets. [Advertisement. Coca cola : family size : things go better with Coke]

[Advertisement. Coca-cola : float with Coke]
(Descriptive text to identify different advertisements)

[Advertisement. Liberal Party of Australia NSW Division, election campaign : 1978 : NSW Referral Centre : action, not words, think Liberal]

[Advertisement. Liberal Party of Australia NSW Division, election campaign : 1978 : team : less talk, more action, vote Liberal]
(Election campaign advertisements)

[Advertisements. Aspro : 25 sec. commercials. Tks NA102/01-09]

[Advertisements. Aspro : 25 sec. commercials. Tks R6297/01-09]
(Identification numbers used to break conflicts in these collective titles)

[Advertisement. 5DN : 1974 station profile]

[Advertisement. 5DN : 1981 breakfast profile]
(Radio station advertisements)

[Advertisement. Road Safety Council : drinking and driving]

[Advertisement. Road Safety Council : holiday driving]

[Advertisement. Road Safety Council : seat belts]
(Community service announcements) Alternatively, for instance if the archive's or cataloguing agency's catalogue has means to retrieve all advertisements other than alphabetically by title (such as through a subject heading or other classification system), and there is no preference to commence the title with the form, place the term advertisement at the end of the title. [Coca-cola : family size : things go better with Coke : advertisement]

1.B.7.4. Field recordings, etc. Field recordings are normally the by-product of research by a collector who travels into the field for the purpose of documenting some aspect of life in that location. The focus of the research may be on the life and culture of a group of persons, or fauna in a particular region. The result of such a field trip will be a collection of recordings with accompanying written documentation. In addition, film may be shot, videos recorded and still pictures taken. For guidance on cataloguing material at the collection level, refer to the ISAD(G) : General International Standard Archival Description, Bureau of Canadian Archivists. Rules for Archival Description, or Hensen, Steven L. Archives, Personal Papers and Manuscripts : A Cataloging Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies and Manuscript Libraries.

Recordings with the type of content indicated above may not necessarily be field recordings, for instance, an oral history recorded in a studio, recordings of wildlife in captivity, or a recording of traditional or ethnographic music made during a public performance by artists on tour. The following rules 1.B.7.5-1.B.7.8 provide guidance for devising suitable titles for these types of recordings. 1.B.7.5. Oral histories

Oral histories are in-depth interviews focusing on a person's life or career, or on an organisation's history or activities or part thereof. Construct the title with the term Oral history, the name of the interviewee(s) and the date of interview. Enclose the whole title in square brackets.

[Oral history. Interview with Leon Becker, 1990-08-14]

Alternatively, where the focus may be on the name or title of a project for which the interview was conducted, construct the title with the term Oral history, name or title of the project, and name of the interviewee and the date of interview. Enclose the whole title in square brackets. [Oral history. Memories of the British in India. Interview with Lady Squire, 1971-06-21]

If more than one oral history or interview has been recorded by the same person, it may be appropriate to include additional information such as the name of the interviewer to help readily identify the different oral histories or interviews.

Optionally, if the archive or cataloguing agency also places significance on the persons conducting the interviews, it may be appropriate to always include their name as a statement of responsibility. [Oral history. Interview with Leon Becker, 1990-08-14 / Graham Shirley, interviewer] Alternatively, should the archive or cataloguing agency have a method of retrieving all of its oral history recordings other than through the first words in the title (e.g. through a subject heading or some other classification system) then the term oral history could be relocated in the title, so allowing the inverted name of the interviewee as the filing point. [Becker, Leon : interviewed 1990-08-14 : oral history]

[Becker, Leon : interviewed by Graham Shirley, 1994-08-14 : oral history]

[Becker, Leon : interviewed by Phil Haldeman, 1994-01-20 : oral history]

Alternatively, where an archive deals with a variety of interviews, terms such as reminiscence or conversation may be used instead of oral history. 1.B.7.6. Other interviews including vox pops (vox populi) and promotional interviewsInterviews may also be conducted on any topic and may be in-depth, or brief. Vox pops are generally very short and are conducted by the broadcast media to record and use public opinion on a current topic in a broadcast. Promotional interviews are often broadcast to promote the work of a visiting or local celebrity, artist, or producer releasing a new recording, new film, appearing in or launching a new production, or competing in a forthcoming sporting event, etc. Commence a supplied title with the form, follow with the topic and date and name of the interviewer (and interviewee, if considered important). Enclose the whole title in square brackets. [Interview. Peter Burgis and James McCarthy] [sound recording] : [Australian musical composition between ca. 1920 and ca. 1950 / Verity James, interviewer, 1987-02-06]

[Vox pop. Frankfurt an der Oder floods, 1997 : eyewitness account of unidentified woman]

Alternatively, commence the title with the key topic and relocate the term designating the form within the title.

[Australian musical composition between ca. 1920 and ca. 1950] [sound recording] : [interview with Peter Burgis and James McCarthy / Verity James, interviewer]

[Frankfurt an der Oder floods, 1997 : eyewitness account of unidentified woman : vox pop] 1.B.7.7. Recordings of traditional societies and ethnic groupsConstruct the title with [Traditions. Locality. Name of the traditional society or ethnic group. Identification of the work]. [Traditions. Oceania. Solomon Islands. Malaita. `Are, `are. `Au tahana panpipe ensemble]

[Traditions. Oceania. Solomon Islands. Guadalcanal. Kongga. Hau kesa panpipe ensemble]

[Traditions. Australia. Northern Territory. Yuendumu. Walbiri language group. Rain dreaming ceremony = Ngapa]

Alternatively, where an archive or cataloguing agency deals only with ethnographic or traditional materials, or where this information is documented via a subject heading or other means of classification, it may not be necessary to commence the title with the term Traditions.

[Oceania. Solomon Islands. Malaita. `Au tahana panpipe ensemble] Optionally, where details such as place of recording and of the traditional society or ethnic group are presented elsewhere in the catalogue record (e.g. as subject headings, in specifically designated fields and/or through analytic or multilevel description) these details may also be omitted from the title for the recorded item. First level:
[Recordings of the Solomon Islands]

Second level:
[Recordings of Malaita]

Third level:
Segment 1[`Au tahana panpipe ensemble]

Segment 2[Wooden drums ensemble]

(Example of skeletal multilevel catalogue record) 1.B.7.8. Wildlife and bio-acoustic recordings Construct the title using all or some of the following: [Class. Family. Sub-Family. Tribe. Genus. Species = translation if required] [Insecta. Tettigoniidae. Conocephalinae. Copiphorini. Pseudorhynchus. mimeticus]
(Taxonomic name for a species of grasshopper)

[Aves. Elanus scriptus = Letter-winged kite]

Alternatively, give the translation only as the title, or additionally as a title added entry, if this is most useful for the clients of the archive or cataloguing agency and only a small number of such recordings are held in the collection.

Optional addition. Additional information elements which may be handled through notes or by the use of specified fields are place of recording (which may include locality; latitude and longitude; local and regional place name; grid applied by the archive or cataloguing agency) date of recording; name of recordist; sex of the recorded individuals; whether they are children, adolescents, adults; time of day; temperature; existence of other factors (e.g. wind, other environmental / ambient sounds); and for individuals recorded after capture, the date and place of capture of the individuals and subsequent preservation method of the individuals, if applicable, e.g. pinned, stuffed, alcohol (see 7.B.11 and 7.B.24). 1.B.7.9. Sound effects and mood musicSound effects and mood music are mostly used as production aids for radio, television and cinema. Construct the title with an appropriate term followed by a description of the effect or mood evoked and conclude with the real title of the original work if applicable. Enclose the whole title in square brackets. [Sound effect. Aeroplane. Jet take off]

[Sound effect. Fight. Two punches followed by heavy fall]

[Sound effect. Fight. Blow to head]
Note: Effect made by stick hitting cabbage head

[Sound effect. Car. Motor revs, tyres screech on acceleration]

[Mood music. Nuptial : Wedding march] / Mendelssohn ; arr. Wilson Additional descriptive information and access points may also be included as appropriate to assist in selecting a particular recording for use from many others with similar type of effect or mood. 1.B.7.10. Musical works
See also: 1.B.1.2 Where a title must be devised for a classical musical work and the work is identified, give all of the elements as prescribed for uniform titles in established codes, such as the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. - 2nd ed, Rules 25.25-25.35. Enclose such devised titles in square brackets. Note that a uniform title provides the means for bringing together all catalogue entries for a work when various manifestations (e.g. editions, translations) of it have appeared under various titles. A uniform title also provides identification for a work when the title, by which it is known, differs from the title proper of the item being catalogued. The need to use uniform titles varies from one catalogue to another and varies within one catalogue. [Trios, piano, strings, no. 2, op. 66, C minor]

[Le Nozze di Figaro. Voi che sapete. French] Alternatively, always give title proper information for classical music in square brackets and according to the appropriate uniform title structure applied by the archive or cataloguing agency.

For all other positively identified non-classical musical works requiring a supplied title (except recordings of traditional societies or ethnic groups described at 1.B.7.7, mood music described at 1.B.7.9 and improvised music described at 1.B.7.11), give the title of the smallest part of the whole work. and enclose it in square brackets. As appropriate, indicate the source of information in a note (see 1.A.2 and 7.B.3).

[Georgia on my mind]

[Singin' in the rain]

[You'll never walk alone]

not [Carousel. You'll never walk alone]

When it is not possible to identify the work, devise a descriptive title including indication of style or genre, and media (instruments and/or voices). [Classical style piano item in a major key]

[Lieder style song performed in German by baritone with piano accompaniment]

[Jazz item performed by piano, bass and drums]

[Jazz item (bebop) sung by soprano with electric piano accompaniment]

[Spanish guitar item]

1.B.7.11. Improvised music and stage performances If the item consists of a sequence of recorded improvisations under a given collective title, transcribe the title and supply a suitable descriptive phrase as other title information, in square brackets. Ra : [duo improvisations] / by Evan Parker and Paul Lytton
Note: Recorded at Moers Festival June 1976

The same rule will apply to items from unpublished collections. John Stevens tapes. Spontaneous Music Ensemble with Evan Parker live in Highgate : [improvised music]

If the recorded improvisation has no title, supply one in square brackets, and include a suitable descriptive phrase as other title information, in the same set of square brackets. [Improvised music : duo improvisation] / by Marilyn Crispell and Eddie Prevost

Alternatively, construct the title commencing with the phrase Improvised music. [Improvised music. Ra] / by Evan Parker and John Lytton

1.B.7.12. Edited recordings Where a recording has undergone significant editing of content (e.g. aural enhancement, such as equalisation or filtering or digital restoration; and/or where new content is added, such as a new mix with voiceover or new mix with synthesizer added) treat as a separate recording. The golden years in digital stereo : the blues, 1923-1933 / Robert Parker [recording engineer]

Melting pot : reggae dub mix ; Melting pot : club mix

When Johnny comes marching home : [digitally enhanced]

1.B.7.13. Excerpts In the case of excerpts copied from original recordings and prepared for commercial release or broadcast, a separate catalogue record is required. Use a suitable term or phrase to indicate that the excerpt is different in content from the original. As appropriate, this may be made in the title and may be either transcribed from the source of information or supplied. Give any further explanation in a note. Wonnga dance songs. Selected items

[Insecta. Tettigoniidae. Conocephalinae. Copiphorini. Pseudorhynchus. Mimeticus. 3 second excerpt]
Note: Edited using Soundedit Pro.

[Insecta. Tettigoniidae. Conocephalinae. Copiphorini. Pseudorhynchus. Mimeticus. 5 second excerpt]
Note: Edited using Soundedit Pro. Stock shot libraries maintained by broadcasters also contain short or long excerpts of original recordings for ready reference to use in news broadcasts, documentaries and other programmes. These may be of any content, on any topic, by any speaker, performer or subject, and may include broadcast news or on-location reports, speeches or actuality.

Where stock shot material is an excerpt, include indication of this in the title. [Gemini 10 astronauts John Young and Michael Collins most complicated flight yet : Tuesday, 1966-07-19 : excerpt]

1.B.7.14. Incomplete recordings

Where an original recording is incomplete, create a new catalogue record for it and indicate its incompleteness. Friday on my mind : [incomplete : first 40 seconds only] / the Easybeats
Note: Tape runs out before end of song.

After sundown : [fragment] 1.B.8. Titles in two or more languages or scripts
AACR2 1.1B8
If the source of information bears titles in two or more languages or scripts, transcribe as the title proper the one in the language or script of the main written, spoken or sung content of the item. If this criterion is not applicable, choose the title proper by reference to the order of titles on, or the layout of, the source of information. Record the other titles as parallel titles (see 1.D.). Pongo och de 101 dalmatinerna [videorecording]
(The original title is One hundred and one Dalmatians, but since the film is dubbed into Swedish, the Swedish title is chosen as title proper)

1.B.9. Titles with supplementary, section, part or numeric information
See also: 1.C.2.

1.B.9.1. Titles with supplementary or section information
AACR2 1.1B9
If the title proper for an item that is supplementary to, or a section of, another item appears in two or more parts not grammatically linked, record the title of the main work first, followed by the title(s) of the supplementary item(s) or sections in order of their dependence. Precede the number or part information with a full stop and a space. 

Faust. Part one

The German pre-classics. Series A, Georg Philipp Telemann

Dr. Paul. Episodes 1-2

1.B.9.2. Titles with numeric information that is intrinsic to the title Do not confuse numeric information which is intrinsic to the title of the work with part or supplementary information. For instance, a sequel which is a work in its own right, or a unique work written in a standard form, has numeric information which is intrinsic to the title. In such cases, give the numeric information as a part of the title proper.  

Absolute music 14

Symphony no. 5

Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 2 in F minor, op. 21

Rocky IV

Under siege II

1.B.9.3. Titles consisting of a section, supplement, part, episode, etc., alone
Developed from NFSA MAVIS Data Entry Guidelines. Series and Serials (9/95)
The title proper can consist of the title of a section, supplement, part, episode, etc., alone under some circumstances. For instance when commercial sound recordings are released as part of a series by the record company, but are marketed as separate items, or where a series of individual parts are self contained (i.e. when there is neither continuity in the story line nor in the cast of characters, and the parts are not intended to be viewed or auditioned consecutively).

Where such an item is part of a series, the series and volume or episode number (if applicable) may be recorded in Area 6 rather than as part of the title proper. Art music from the Far East
Series: (Musical sources)
(Commercially issued sound recording)

L'outil et le geste
Series: (Inventaire des campagnes ; 4)
(Episode from a documentary series where the episodes have individual titles, are self contained, and do not have continuing characters or story line)

Craig and Steve
Series: (Why can't they be like we were)
(An educational film from a series designed to encourage classroom discussion about different aspects of adolescent life. Each film deals with a separate topic and is able to be used in isolation) 1.B.9.3.1. Broadcast series
Developed and adapted from FIAF 1.1.2.2, 1.1.2.2.1
Developed and adapted from NFSA MAVIS Data Entry Guidelines. Series and Serials (9/95)

See also: 6.0.2 Generally the primary access point for episodes of broadcast series includes both the series title and the episode number and/or date of initial broadcast. In most cases individual parts or episodes may be almost meaningless without the title of the series or serial to which they belong. Give the title of the series followed by a full stop, space and the episode number or date of broadcast and/or episode title. If an episode title is given in addition to the episode number or date of broadcast, give it last and precede it with a space, colon, space. Dancing in the street. Episode 3
Series: (Dancing in the street ; episode 3)

Skippy. Episode 5 : Mayday
Series: (Skippy ; episode 5)

Bonanza. A fence around the waterhole
Series: (Bonanza)

Beaumanoir. Épisode 26 : Règlement de comptes
Series: (Beaumanoir ; épisode 26)

Matin Bonheur. 1992-10-12 : [Benjamin Asger]
Series: (Matin Bonheur ; 1992-10-12) (Broadcast magazine episode entirely on the topic of Benjamin Asger)

Alternatively, for instance in a catalogue where all episodes may be retrieved in the required order via the series title as an authority record (together with any numbering in the series statement), give the episode title only as the title proper, and give the series and episode number or broadcast date in Area 6 only. Mayday
Series: (Skippy ; episode 5)

A fence around the waterhole
Series: (Bonanza)

Règlement de comptes
Series: (Beaumanoir ; episode 26)

[Benjamin Asger]
Series: (Matin Bonheur ; 1992-10-12) An episode title is not necessary, however, for news and current affairs broadcasts which feature several stories, nor for quiz shows or variety programmes. BBC News. 1997-01-02. 18.00
Series: (BBC News ; 1997-01-02)
(News broadcast. The time of broadcast may be added as more specific identification)

Tournez manège. 1992-02-16
Series: (Tournez manège ; 1992-02-16)
(Daily game broadcast programme)

Sale of the century. 1997-07-15
Series: (Sale of the century ; 1997-07-15)
(Daily quiz broadcast programme)

In Melbourne tonight. 1997-09-01
Series: (In Melbourne tonight ; 1997-09-01)
(Variety broadcast programme) A broadcast series may sometimes be a series within a series, i.e. a subseries (see 6.H), or a series broadcast within a particular timeslot or season (see 1.B.9.3.2).

For the title proper of an episode of a subseries, give the subseries as a part of the main series. Also give the series and subseries information according to 6.G and 6.H.1. The air adventures of Biggles. Episodes 821-822. Desert broom. Episodes 38-39
Area 6: (The air adventures of Biggles ; episodes 821-822. Desert broom ; episodes 38-39)
(Radio transcription disc with two consecutive episodes of a subseries within a series)

Alternatively, give the subseries information only as the title proper, with the main series and subseries given according to 6.G and 6.H.1.

Desert broom. Episodes 38-39
Area 6: (The air adventures of Biggles ; episodes 821-822. Desert broom ; episodes 38-39)

1.B.9.3.2. Timeslot or season A timeslot or season is a regular programme time spot which may be used to broadcast material related by theme. Do not treat programmes broadcast in timeslots or seasons as subseries. Instead give the series title and, optionally, date and/or episode title as the title proper and give the title of the timeslot or season as a separate series, or, alternatively, in a note, if deemed significant. Meet the musician. 1989-07-22 : Kate Scott
Series: (Meet the musician ; 1989-07-22)
Series: (Canberra folk ; 1989-07-22)
(Programme broadcast in the Canberra folk timeslot)

The Sunday play. Love at a loss
Series: (The Sunday play ; 1995-05-21)
Series: (Fairest isle)
(Programme broadcast as part of the Fairest isle season)

Composer of the week. Lennox and Michael Berkeley
Series: (Composer of the week ; 1995-06-26)
Note: Broadcast as part of the Fairest Isle season Alternatively, give the episode title only as the title proper. Kate Scott
Series: (Meet the musician ; 1987-07-22)
Series: (Canberra folk ; 1987-07-22)

1.B.9.3.3. Broadcasters' production numbers
Adapted from FIAF 1.1.2.2.1

Do not confuse production numbers used by broadcasters to identify productions with episode numbers. Give production numbers for broadcast episodes of series and serials in Area 8. 1.B.10. Items with a collective title
Expanded from AACR2 1.1B10
If the source of information bears both a collective title and the titles of the individual works, give the collective title as the title proper and give the titles of the individual works in a contents note (see 7.B.25), or, alternatively, in separate analytic records linked to the host item with the collective title, or as a multilevel record (see Chapter 9). Lundell live
Note: Contents: Östra Svealand -- Herrarna -- Oh la la (jag vill ha dej) -- 67 -- Öppna landskap -- Maria kom tillbaka

The great piano concertos
Note: Contents: Concerto for piano and orchestra in A minor, op. 54 / Robert Schumann -- Concerto for piano and orchestra in A minor, op.16 / Edvard Grieg -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 5 in E flat major, op.73 / Ludwig van Beethoven -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 1 in B flat major, op. 23 / Peter I. Tchaikovsky -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 2 in C minor, op. 18 / Serge Rachmaninoff -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 1 in E flat major / Franz Liszt -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 21 in C major, K467 / Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 2 in A major / Franz Liszt -- Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 2 in F minor, op. 21 / Frederic Chopin -- Concerto for piano and orchestra in G major / Maurice Ravel

El baúl de los cuentos
(Kit containing 8 printed volumes, 1 CD-ROM and 2 videocassettes)

In cases where a broadcast episode contains different stories, as with news and current affairs programmes, the titles of each story may be included in a contents note or handled as analytics, or as a multilevel record (see Chapter 9). 60 minutes. 1985-06-16
Series: (60 minutes ; 1985-06-16)
Note: Contents: Water babies -- Taken for a ride -- Day of the Jacko (Example with contents note)

For items without a collective title, see 1.G. 1.B.11. Simultaneous broadcast material
See also: see 7.B.12 Catalogue separately radio and television materials which have been simultaneously broadcast. Include a note in each catalogue record to show their relationship (see 7.B.12). Note that in these cases even though the performed realisation is the same, the technical production aspects of television and radio have different requirements, and also result in different manifestations. Don Juan / Christoph Willibald Gluck ; libretto Rainieri de Calzabigi ; producer Jan Sederholm. - Stockholm : Sveriges radio P2, 1987-01-02 (21:50-22:55)
Note: Simultaneous broadcast with Sveriges television TV1

Don Juan / Christoph Willibald Gluck ; libretto Rainieri de Calzabigi ; TV director Jan Sederholm ; choreography Regina Beck-Friis ; design and costume David Walker ; dramaturgist Margaretha Söderling. - Stockholm : Sveriges television TV1, 1987-01-02 (21.50-22.55)
Note: Simultaneous broadcast with Sveriges radio P2

1.C. General material designation Optional addition

ISBD (NBM) 0.2 General material designation is a term indicating broadly, the class of material to which an item belongs.

1.C.1.
Extracted and adapted from AACR2 1.1C1

See also: 5.B.1.2, 5.F.4 If general material designations are to be used, use terms from the list given below. As appropriate, apply these terms in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency.

sound recording
motion picture
videorecording
electronic resource
kit
text
visual projection

1.C.2.
Adapted from AACR2 1.1C2
If an item consists of material falling within one category in the list, give the appropriate designation immediately following the title proper (or the last part of the title proper, see 1.B.9).

Skolvan [sound recording]

In the case of an item having no collective title, give the appropriate designation immediately following the first title (inclusive of part titles (see 1.B.9) and alternative titles (see 1.B.1.3), but exclusive of parallel titles (see 1.E) and other title information (see 1.D).

The art of the fugue, BWV1080 (Contrapunctus 1-9) [sound recording] = Die Kunst der Fuge = L'art de la fugue / Johann Sebastian Bach. Suites for harpsichord = Cembalo = Clavecin / Georg Friedrich Händel

1.C.3.
ISBD (NBM) 1.2.3
When the item comprises a primary component with a subsidiary component(s) not of the same general material category (e.g. a sound disc accompanied by a leaflet) the general material designation refers only to the primary component.

Tradition chantée de Bretagne [sound recording] : les sources du Barzaz Breiz aujourd'hui
(1 Compact disc+ 1 book)

Piparsod un village indien [videorecording]
(1 videocassette + 1 book)

1.C.4.
Based on AACR2 1.1C4

See also: 5.F.4 If an item contains parts belonging to materials falling into two or more categories and if none of these is the predominant constituent of the item , give kit .

Stora popboxen [kit ]
(1 book + 2 CDs + 1 videocassette)

1.C.5.
Based on AACR2 1.10C1

See also: 5.F.4 When an item having no collective title proper comprises two interdependent components belonging to distinct material categories, the appropriate general material designation is given after each title

Life in the time of Charles Dickens [visual projection] / editor, Albert Ammerman. The time, the life, the works of Charles Dickens, and excerpts from Dickens on America [sound recording] / read by Ian Brett and Peter Howell

Optionally, make separate descriptions for each component, and link them with notes.

Il re Teodoro in Venezia [sound recording] / Giovanni Paisiello. - Roma : Discoteca di Stato, p 1994 : Istituto di Ricerca per il Teatro Musicale, c 1994. - 2 sound discs (CDs)
Note: Recording of the 1962 performance directed by Renato Fasano and broadcast by Radiotelevisione italiana, Tonino
Note: Also available with monograph of text and musicological comments: Il re teodoro in Venezia di Giovanni Paisiello. - 1 vol. - IRTEM, 1994
Area 8: Discoteca di Stato/Istituto Ricerca Teatro Musicale: IRTEM 993/1-2

Il re Teodoro Venezia di Giovanni Paisiello [text]. - Roma : Istituto di Ricerca per il Teatro Musicale, 1994. - 178 p
Note: Contains papers on and an analysis of the opera by Francesco Degrada, Carlo Marinelli and Paola Bernardi, the libretto, and a facsimile of the original libretto by Giovanni Battista Casti
Note: Also available with a sound recording of the 1962 performance of this work directed by Renato Fasano and broadcast by Radiotelevisione italiana, Tonino. - 1994. - 2 sound discs (CDs). - Discoteca di Stato/Istituto Ricerca Teatro Musicale: IRTEM 993/1-2

(Second note in each example shows the relationship between these two publications when packaged together)

1.D. Parallel titles

Developed from ISBD (NBM) 0.2A parallel title is the title proper in dialect, another language and/or script; or a title in dialect, another language and/or script presented as an equivalent of the title proper; or the title proper repeated with other title information in dialect, another language and/or script.

1.D.1.
Based on AACR2 1.1D1
Transcribe parallel titles in the order indicated by their sequence on, or by the layout of, the source of information.

Birds awakening in Normandy [sound recording] = Le réveil des oiseaux en Normandie

Kanu kalon-Breizh [sound recording] = [Chants profonds de Bretagne] (Compilation of recordings, sung in Breton. Text of the songs in Breton and French on the sleeve.)

1.D.2.
Adapted from AACR2 1.1D3
Transcribe an original title in a language different from that of the title proper appearing prominently in the source of information as a parallel title .

Pongo och de 101 dalmatinerna [videorecording] = One hundred and one Dalmatians
(American film dubbed into Swedish. The original title appears on the title frames.)

If such an original title does not appear prominently in the source of information, give the original title in a note (see 7.B.5)

The road warrior [motion picture]
Note: Originally released in Australia under the title Mad Max 2

Varied from AACR2If the title proper is repeated with other title information (see 1.E) in another language and/or script, transcribe the repeated title proper as a parallel title .

Locked up [videorecording] : a mother's rage = Locked up : en desperat kamp för livet

1.D.3.
Based on AACR2 1.1D4
Give parallel titles appearing in a secondary source of information in a note (see 7.B.5).

Trommelrhythmen der Malinke [sound recording]
Note: Parallel title: Rythmes de tambour des Malinke

Saa møj' en sørreli' Wies
Note: Parallel title: En meget sørgelig vise

(The label gives the title in dialect only.)

1.E. Other title information

Based on ISBD (NBM) 0.2 Other title information is defined as a word or phrase appearing in conjunction with, and subordinate to, the title proper, parallel title , or other titles and which qualifies, explains, or completes the title to which it applies or which is indicative of the character, contents, etc., of the item .

1.E.1. Based on AACR2 1.1E1

Transcribe all other title information according to the instructions in 1.B. Precede other title information by a space, colon, space.

Movin' up [sound recording] : UK remixes

Magic guitar [sound recording] : 16 guitar hits

Music for dreams [sound recording] : a different ambient compilation

1.E.2. AACR2 1.1E2

Transcribe other title information in the order indicated by the sequence on, or the layout of, the source of information.

Army of Lovers [videorecording] : videovaganza 1990-1993 : the Ride the bullet story
(A pop video collection where Army of Lovers perform Ride the bullet and other songs)

1.E.3. Lengthy other title information

AACR2 1.1E3 If the other title information is lengthy, either give it in a note (see 7.B.5) or abridge it (see 1.B.4). Abridge other title information only if this can be done without loss of essential information. Never omit any of the first five words of the other title information. Indicate omissions by the mark of omission ( .).

1.E.4. AACR2 1.1E4

See also: 1.F.13 If the other title information includes a statement of responsibility or the name of a publisher, distributor etc., and the statement or name is an integral part of the other title information, transcribe it as such.

Texas girl & pretty boy [sound recording] : Mathilde Santing sings Randy Newman

1.E.5. Developed from AACR2 1.1E5

Transcribe other title information following the whole or part of the title proper or the parallel title to which it pertains.  

Pan in "A" minor [videorecording] : steelbands of Trinidad's Island

Pacific Heights [videorecording] = Pacific Heights : den objudne gästen
(Other title information in Swedish only)

Pierronet foltralet [sound recording] : tale = Petit Pierre le nigaud : conte

If there are no parallel title s and if other title information appears in more than one language or script, give the other title information that is in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, give the other title information that appears first. Optionally, give the other title information in other languages. Precede each parallel statement by an equals sign.

Variations on a Czech love song [sound recording] : for piano solo and woodwind choir = pour piano soliste et ensemble de bois

1.E.6. AACR2 1.1E6

If the title proper needs explanation, supply a brief addition as other title information, in the language of the title proper.  

H.C. Andersen [sound recording] : [selections]

1.F. Statements of responsibility

Based on AACR2 Glossary
See also: 9.1.A.7.1 A statement of responsibility is a statement relating to persons responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of the item, to corporate bodies from which the content emanates, or to persons or corporate bodies responsible for the performance of the item .

Based on FIAF 1.6.1, para 2 Because responsibility for AV materials is most often complex and highly diverse, archives - particularly those with special interests - should determine the types of functions they wish to include in this area, and also if they want to present the functions in a given order.

1.F.1. Transcription
Based on AACR2 1.1F1
Transcribe statements of responsibility appearing in the source of information in the form in which they appear there. If a statement of responsibility is supplied by the cataloguer, enclose it in square brackets (see 1.F.2).

1.F.1.1. Sound recordings
Developed from AACR2 6.1F1
Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons or bodies credited with a major role in creating the intellectual content of the sound recording (e.g. as writers of spoken words, composers of performed music, collectors of field material, producers having artistic and/or intellectual responsibility). If the participation of the persons or bodies named in a statement found in the source of information goes beyond that of performance, execution, or interpretation of a work (as is commonly the case with popular music, jazz, traditional music, etc.), give such a statement as a statement of responsibility. If, however, the participation is confined to performance, execution, or interpretation (as is commonly the case with classical music, readings of literary works, etc.), give the statement as a note (see 7.B.7).

Tabula rasa [sound recording] / Arvo Pärt

Burglar [sound recording] / Freddie King

Birds awakening in Normandy [sound recording] = Le réveil des oiseaux en Normandie / collected by Jean-Luc Hérelle

Freja! [sound recording] / Isa Edholm, producer ; Karin Svennem, editor
(Radio broadcast)

The search for meaning [sound recording] / Carolyn Jones, presenter
(Radio broadcast)

1.F.1.2. Motion pictures and videorecordings
Based on FIAF 1.6, 1.6.1
The following is presented as a brief guide for those occasions when a moving image format contains intellectual content which could also be represented in a sound recording - in particular a performance of music, or similar type of performing art. It is recommended that The FIAF Cataloguing Rules be consulted for more detailed guidance when cataloguing moving image materials.

Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons credited with participation in the original production of a moving image who are considered to be of major importance, and who have some degree of overall responsibility for the work. Examples of important functions that indicate some degree of overall responsibility for the work include but are not limited to: director, producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, and animator. For basic guidance on transcribing the names of corporate bodies, including informally constituted groups such as collectives and communes credited with participation in the production or distribution of a moving image, see 3.B.2.3.

The Commitments [videorecording] / directed by Alan Parker

Everyone says I love you [motion picture] / written and directed by Woody Allen

Let's dance! [motion picture] / written, directed & produced by Paul-Anders Simma

1.F.1.2.1.
Developed from AACR2 6.1F1
For musical performances on film or video where the participation of the persons, groups, etc., named in a statement found in the source of information, goes beyond that of performance, execution, or interpretation of a work (as is commonly the case with popular music, jazz, traditional music, etc.), give the performer first in the statement of responsibility, before the director, etc.

Look sharp [videorecording] / Roxette ; directed by Doug Freel

Sexual revolution [videorecording] / Army of Lovers ; directed by Fredrik Boklund ; produced by Martin Persson

Elvis [videorecording] : the lost performances / Elvis Presley ; produced by Patrick Michael Murphy

1.F.1.2.2.
Developed from AACR2 6.1F1
For musical performances on film or video where the participation of the persons, groups, etc., named in a statement found in the source of information, is confined to performance, execution, or interpretation (as is commonly the case with classical music, readings of literary works, etc.), give the composer/author first in the statement of responsibility, followed by the producer, director, etc.

The four seasons [videorecording] = Die vier Jahreszeiten = De fyra årstiderna / music by Antonio Vivaldi ; produced by Henry Fueter ; directed by Niklaus Gessner

1.F.1.2.3.
Developed from AACR2 6.1F1
For opera, theatre, ballet and dance performances on film or video, give in the statement of responsibility also the names of the designers and the choreographers.

Aida [motion picture] / music Giuseppe Verdi ; original libretto Antonio Ghislanzoni ; produced by Staffan Rydén ; directed by ClAES Fellbom ; revised text and screenplay ClAES Fellbom ; costume designer Inger Pehrsson ; art director Lotta Melanton ; choreography Ann-Charlotte Lindström
(Filmed version of Verdi's Aida, shot in Lanzarote, Spain)

The ghosts of Versailles [videorecording] / music John Corigliano ; libretto William F. Hoffman ; production Colin Graham ; technical director Joseph Clark ; general director Joseph Volpe ; artistic director James Levine ; video director Brian Large ; audio producer Jay David Saks ; set and costume design John Conklin ; choreographer Debra Brown
(Stage performance from the Metropolitan Opera)

Highlights from Rigoletto [videorecording] : opera in three acts / by Francesco Maria Piave after Victor Hugo ; music by Giuseppe Verdi ; staged and directed by Jean-Pierre Ponnelle
(Stage performance from Staatsoper, Vienna)

1.F.1.3. Electronic resources
Based on Guidelines for Interactive Multimedia, H.I
Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons or bodies responsible for the entire content of an electronic resource (e.g. interactive multimedia developers, composers, authors, designers, performers, or others similarly named as having principal or equally shared responsibility for the creation of the whole electronic resource). If the statements of responsibility are lengthy, give them in a note.

All my hummingbirds have alibis [electronic resource] / composer, project director Morton Sobotnick

Elithockey 96 [elektronisk resurs] / idé, manus och projektledning Bright Ebenezer

Optionally, if considered important for a particular catalogue or cataloguing agency, give all other statements of responsibility, including those confined to the creation of specific parts of the electronic resource in a note. These include: musical or visual performers, ensembles, video graphic designers, guidebook editors, applications programmers, choreographers, narrators, script writers, costumers, set designers and sponsors for a specific part of a work.

1.F.1.4. KitsTranscribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons or bodies responsible for the entire content of the kit.  

The fabulous phonograph of Thomas Rome [kit] / Performing Arts Museum

Golden days of radio [kit] / Australia Post

For kits, where the different components have individual statements of responsibility, transcribe the statements of responsibility in an order corresponding to each of the components.

Fábulas Océano [kit] / ilustraciones María Pascual ; textos Víctor M. Armenteros, Jaime Rovira ; producción y dirección [de las cassettes] Gerardo Domal, Francioli Vázquez ; efectos de audio Sergio Bayard

1.F.2.
Based on FIAF 1.6.1

See also 1.F.1 If no statement of responsibility appears in the sources of information and is identified, supply one, and enclose it in square brackets. Give the source of information in a note, as appropriate.

The Jinns : concerto for piano with orchestra / [Cesar Franck]
Note: Composer confirmed from published score and audition of recording.

Based on and adapted from FIAF 1.6.4 Optionally, if the statement of responsibility appearing in the sources of information only gives surname, or surname and initials for a person, and the missing information is identified, supply the part of the name that is missing, and enclose it in square brackets.

Title / [William] Bell

Title / G[raham] Type 1.F.3.
AACR2 1.1F3
If a statement of responsibility precedes the title proper in the source of information, transpose it to its required position unless it is an integral part of the title proper (see 1.B.2).

Getting ready- [sound recording] / Freddie King
(Source of information gives the statement of responsibility before the title)

1.F.4.
AACR2 1.1F4

Transcribe a single statement of responsibility as such whether two or more persons or corporate bodies named in it perform the same function or different functions.  

Tillsammans [sound recording] / texter av Tove Jansson och musik av Erna Tauro

1.F.5.
Based on AACR2 1.1F5
If a single statement of responsibility names more than three persons or corporate bodies performing the same function, omit all but the first of each group of such persons or bodies. Indicate the omission by the mark of omission ( ...) and add et al. (or its equivalent in another language and/or script) in square brackets. Alternatively, the cataloguing agency or archive should decide on the number of names to be transcribed.

Bert - den siste oskulden [motion picture] / regi Tomas Alfredson ; manus Michael Hjort ... [et al.] ; producent Johan Mardell
(Source of information gives four screenwriters)

1.F.6.
Based on AACR2 1.1F6
If there is more than one statement of responsibility, transcribe them in the order indicated by their sequence on, or the layout of, the source of information. If the sequence and layout are ambiguous or insufficient to determine the order, transcribe the statements in the order that makes the most sense. 1.F.7.
Developed from AACR2 1.1F7
Include titles and abbreviations of title, nobility address, etc., if such data are considered to be necessary.  

The Scarlet Pimpernel / by Baroness Orczy

Do not confuse title, nobility address, etc., with similar titular phrases which form parts of names, which are common in popular music. Titular phrases which are parts of names should always be given.  

Born in Africa / Dr. Alban
not
Born in Africa / Alban

1.F.8.
AACR2 1.1F8
Add a word or short phrase to the statement of responsibility if the relationship between the title of the item and the person(s) or body(ies) named in the statement is not clear.  

Baijun ballads [sound recording] / [collected by] Chet Williams

1.F.9.
AACR2 1.1F9
Replace symbols or other matter that cannot be reproduced by the facilities available with the cataloguer's description in square brackets. Make an explanatory note if necessary.  

Chaos and disorder / [the Sign]
(The artist formerly known as Prince uses a sign as his name)

1.F.10.
AACR2 1.1F10
If an item has parallel titles but a statement of responsibility in only one language or script, transcribe the statement of responsibility after all the parallel titles or other title information.

Un divan à New York [motion picture] = A couch in New York = Det bor en fransk kvinna i min lägenhet / un film de Chantal Akerman

If an item has parallel titles and a statement of responsibility in more than one language or script, transcribe each statement after the title proper, parallel title , or other title information to which it relates.

Svärmor på vift, eller, Förbjudna vägar [film ] : lustspel i två akter / författad och iscensatt av Georg af Klercker = Mother-in-law on the loose, or, Forbidden ways : comedy in two acts / written and directed by Georg af Klercker = Belle-mère fait la noce, ou, Chemins interdits : comédie en deux actes / conçue et mise en scène par Georg af Klercker

If it is not practicable to give the statements of responsibility after the titles to which they relate, transcribe the statement of responsibility in the language or script of the title proper and omit the others.

1.F.11.
AACR2 1.1F11
If there are no parallel titles and a statement of responsibility appears in more than one language or script, transcribe the statement in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, transcribe the statement that appears first.  

Madame Bovary [videorecording] / réalisateur Jean Marais

Optionally, transcribe the parallel statements, each preceded by an equals sign.  

Madame Bovary [videorecording] / réalisateur Jean Marais = director Jean Marais

Underground [motion picture] / režija Emir Kusturica = r?lis?par Emir Kusturica = directed by Emir Kusturica

1.F.12.
AACR2 1.1F12
Treat a noun phrase occuring in conjunction with a statement of responsibility as other title information if it is indicative of the nature of the work.

Vi behöver varann : en jubileumsfilm / av Sven Stolpe

Characters from Dickens : dramatised adaptations / by Barry Campbell

If the noun or noun phrase is indicative of the role of the person(s) or body (bodies) named in the statements of responsibility rather than of the nature of the work, treat it as part of the statement of responsibility.  

Capoeira, Samba, Candomble [sound recording] / recordings and commentary by Tiago de Oliveira Pintora

Simple men [motion picture] = Begär, besvär och enkla män / a film by Hal Hartley

1.F.13.
AACR2 1.1F13
When a name associated with responsibility for the item is transcribed as part of the title proper (see 1.B.2) or other title information (see 1.E.4), do not make any further statement relating to that name unless such a statement is required for clarity, or unless a separate statement of responsibility including or consisting of that name appears in the source of information.  

Celidibache conducts Bruckner
but
Erasure ABBA : ABBA-esque / Erasure ; executive producer Verity White
(Name of performer has to be given again to make the statement of responsibility clear)

1.F.14.
Developed from AACR2 1.1F14
Where possible, give a statement of responsibility even if no person or body is named in that statement.

Tibetan monastery of Gyütö / Buddhist monks' voices

Samba rhythm / played on two berimbaus

Samba-de-roda / performed by an ensemble of drums, tambourins, agogô and berimbau

A statement of responsibility may include words or phrases that are neither names nor linking words.

Head, fingers & heart / performed by Arne Domnérus

Campanula patula : blomma av Dalarna : en jubileumsproduktion 1951-1991, 40 år / Gagnef musikskola, solister, körer och orkestrar framför musik från Gagnef

1.G. Items without a collective title

AACR2 Glossary
A collective title is a title proper that is an inclusive title for an item containing several works.

1.G.1.
AACR2 1.1G2, 6.1G1

See also: 5.B.4.3 If an audiovisual item contains more than one work and lacks a collective title, either describe the item as a unit or make a description for each separate work.

1.G.2.
Based on AACR2 1.1G3
If describing an audiovisual item without a collective title as a unit, transcribe the titles of the works in the order in which they appear in the sources of information. Separate the titles of the works by semicolons when they are all by the same person(s) or emanate from the same body(ies), even if the titles are linked by a connecting word or phrase.

Cadillac ; On the count 2 3 / Broder Daniel

Clock symphony, no. 101 ; Surprise symphony, no. 94 / Haydn

Fantasy for solo violin ; Piece for oboe and piano / Robin Bradley

Colgate Palmolive cavalcade. Episode 135 ; Protex programme. Episode 338
(Radio transcription disc with episodes from different series )

[Viva Berkenshaw ; Works of Liszt ; The virtuoso / performed by the Malvern Municipal Band]

1.G.3.
When the same information is repeated (e.g. the title or statement of responsibility appears on all labels of a multipart work) do not repeat this information in the transcription. Stevie to the rescue / Jill Mellion

or

Stevie to the rescue. Parts 1-8 / Jill Mellion

(Commercial release on 4 discs available in a special decorative album)

not

Stevie to the rescue. Part 1 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 2 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 3 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 4 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 5 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 6 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 7 ; Stevie to the rescue. Part 8 / Jill Mellion

but

Stevie to the rescue. Parts 1-2, 7-8 / Jill Mellion
(Two discs missing, and only two discs are being catalogued)

Life with Dexter. Episodes 001-002

not

Life with Dexter. Episode 001 ; Life with Dexter. Episode 002
(Radio transcription disc containing 2 consecutive episodes of a serial )

Beau ideal. Episodes 1, 3

not

Beau ideal. Episode 1 ; Beau ideal. Episode 3
(Radio transcription disc with non-consecutive episodes) 1.G.4.
AACR2 1.1G3, 6.1G2

If the individual works are by different persons or emanate from different bodies, or in case of doubt, follow the title of each work by its parallel title (s) and other title information, and statement(s) of responsibility. Separate the groups of data with a full stop followed by two spaces. Prelude, the afternoon of a faun / Claude Debussy. Peer Gynt (Suite) no. 1-2 / Edvard Grieg. Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche / Richard Strauss

Dreamboat / Linzer ; [performed by] Limmie & Family Cookin'. Made in heaven / Levine, Russell Brown ; [performed by] Limmie & Family Cookin'

Label side A: Dreamboat
(Linzer)
Limmie & Family Cookin'
Label side B: Made in heaven
(Levine-Russell Brown)
Limmie & Family Cookin'

1.G.5.
Developed from ISBD (NBM) 1.1.2.9
When the number of individual works is very large, the first three titles may be given followed by the mark of omission
( .). The complete list of titles may be given in a contents note (see 7.B.25) or separately described (see Chapter 9).  

Dixit Dominus, RV 594 ; Stabat mater, RV 261 ; Gloria in D major, RV 588 ...

Based on NFSA MAVIS data Entry Guidelines. Title Entry (3/97) Alternatively, for compilations of unpublished and broadcast items without a common theme, give the first title or the title of the predominant work followed by a suitable term to indicate that other works are in the compilation. The complete list of titles may be given in a contents note (see 7.B.25) or separately described (see Chapter 9).

There's only one of you ; [Other songs] / Jimmy Henney Combo
Note: Contents: There's only one of you -- Don't go home -- Sugar moon -- Padre

So happy today / Willa Hokin, soprano. [Other recordings]
Note: Except for Willa Hokin, all performers and presenters heard on this programme are unidentified.
Note:
Contents: So happy today -- End of unidentified skit -- "It's all yours" radio programme theme song -- Spoken credits for "It's all yours"
(Incomplete details of a broadcast, where only one disc is held and remaining discs are missing. The title of the first song is given as title proper. All contents of the disc are given in the contents note.)

1.G.6.
Developed from FIAF 1.5.1.2
When a compilation of unpublished or broadcast works lacks a collective title and it is possible to supply a suitable collective title, do so. Enclose the title in square brackets. This may be based on a common subject or may be a fonds or collection name. Where a production or other control number would assist in differentiating between other similar compilations, for instance in stock shot libraries, include this information.

[Works by Fritz Hart]
(Compilation of works composed by Fritz Hart)

[Hawaiian Islands]
(A compilation of 26 films)

[Hutchinson, John. Bird calls collection]
(Preservation tapes of bird call recordings collected by John Hutchinson)

[Fonds Geneviève Massignon. French songs from Acadie. Canada. (1964-1972)]

[4BH historic events compilation. Tape S59]

Similarly, in the event that the archive or cataloguing agency may create compilation tapes from various original recordings, e.g. as ready reference material for audition by clients, include a suitable term to indicate this.

[The French Revolution : excerpts]

[French singers from 1958 to 1976 : edited broadcast excerpts]

[The Gulf War : edited broadcast excerpts]

[Best conceived radio commercials of 1959-1960 : in-house compilation]  

Developed from FIAF 1.5.2.4.1

In the case of a collection of unedited material which does not relate to a specific theme, construct a form title commencing with the term Unedited.

[Unedited. MacMillan Collection. Assorted scenes]

[Unedited. Kleine collection footage]

Alternatively, if a more specific entry is required in the title, move the term Unedited to another more suitable position.

[MacMillan Collection. Assorted scenes. Unedited]

[Kleine Collection. Unedited footage]

2: Edition, issue, etc.

2.0. Definitions

Developed from ISBD (NBM) 0.2 Edition: All the copies of an item produced from substantially the same master copy and published or issued by a particular publishing agency or group of agencies. Provided that these conditions are fulfilled, a change in identity of the distributor of the item does not constitute a change of edition.

For sound recordings, all the copies of an item produced from the same fixing of the sound from the same takes. Note, however, that some reissues are different publications (see 2.B.1).

Edition statement: An edition statement is a word or phrase, or a group of characters indicating that an item belongs to a particular edition, issue, release, transmission, version or variation. The edition statement may include statements of responsibility and parallel and additional edition statements.

2.A. Preliminary rule

Developed from ISBD (NBM) Area 2, Punctuation patternPrecede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ).

Precede a parallel edition statement by a space, equals sign, space ( = ).

Precede the first statement of responsibility relating to an edition statement by a space, diagonal slash, space ( / ).

Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility by a space, semicolon, space ( ; ).

Precede a statement relating to an additional edition statement by a comma, space (, ).

2.A.2. Sources of information
Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2

Take information recorded in this area from:

the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);

  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying documentation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist's worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);
  • a container that is an original part of the item (e.g. sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from
  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher's or distributor's brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film , tape box for storing audio tape), or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate (see 7.B.3).

Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4 Enclose information in square brackets only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information is known, or is at least probable. Where this information is uncertain, give a question mark after it.

2.B. Edition statement

AACR2 1.2B, 6.2B

2.B.1. Transcription

Based on AACR2 1.2B1, 6.2B1
Based on ARSC 4.B.1

See also: 2.0 Transcribe a statement relating to an edition of an audiovisual item that contains differences from other editions of that item , or to a named reissue of an item . Omit reissues where they differ from the original in terms of publisher or label name and catalogue number or matrix number , as these are different publications. Use standard abbreviations and numerals in place of words. Do not give an edition statement for first edition, issue, etc.

2nd ed.

Expanded from AACR2 1.2B2 If the edition statement consists solely or chiefly of characters that are neither numeric nor alphabetic, give the statement in words in the language and script of the title proper and enclose them in square brackets.

[Three asterisks] ed.

If the edition statement consists of a letter or letters and/or a number or numbers without accompanying words, add an appropriate word or abbreviation, and enclose it in square brackets.

3e [éd.]

[State] B

2.B.2. Doubtful edition statement

Expanded from AACR2 1.2B3 In case of doubt about whether a statement is an edition statement, take the presence of such words as edition, issue, release, transmission, version or variation (or their equivalents in another language and/or script) as evidence that such a statement is an edition statement, and transcribe it as such.

Western blood / The Sandmen. - New version

The bell witch / Mercyful Fate. - Limited ed.

Dos mundos cantan. - Ed. especial a beneficio de la I.T.E.A.F.

Censored version

Restored version

English language dubbed version

Versión Windows 95

2.B.3.

Explanatory phrases appended to the edition statement may be given in a note (7.B.9).Froggie moore / Spikes Brothers. - Édition limitée
Note: Édition limitée, realisée pour les souscripteurs Association Francaise des Collectionneurs de Disques de Jazz

Autumn almanac = Almanacco d'autonno. - New releases 1991
Note: Consist of previously released material; for this recording

20-bit technology was used for 'high definition sound'

Shorter version
Note: Shorter version of the 1969 motion picture of the same name

Spanish version
Note: Spanish version of the 1956 motion picture entitled: Jenny's birthday book which was based on Jenny's birthday book / by Esther Averill

Reconstructed version
Note: Reconstructed version. The second part is completed with text and still pictures

Short version
Note: Short version of Tendens. Original version broadcast 1988-06-05

2.B.4.

Optional addition. Supplied edition statement
Developed from AACR2 1.2B4, 6.2B3
Where an edition statement cannot be established from any source of information according to 2.A.2, but the item is known to contain significant changes from other editions, supply a suitable brief statement in the language and/or script of the title proper and enclose it in square brackets. Where such edition information is supplied, include a note stating the means of establishing the edition information (see 7.B.3).

[New ed.]

[Budget ed.]

[Pirated ed.]

[Unauthorised ed.]

[Allegedly a pirated ed.]

Note that IASA does not condone the practice of making unauthorised, pirated, bootleg, etc., recordings. It is recognised, however, that sometimes an unauthorised or suspected unauthorised recording may be received by an audiovisual archive.

When cataloguing such material, any information to be recorded about the illegality of the item should be confirmed to be correct as far as possible, and supported in a cataloguer comment (see 7.B.35), to eliminate any future implication of liability for the archive or cataloguing agency.

2.B.5.

AACR2 1.2B6, 6.2B5 If an item lacking a collective title and described as a unit contains one or more works with an associated edition statement(s), transcribe each edition statement following the title and statement(s) of responsibility to which it relates, separated from them by a full stop.

My very first prayer time book / by Mary Fletcher ; illustrations by Treyer Evans. Rev. ed. Now I lay me down to sleep / text and pictures by Rex Catto

2.C. Parallel edition statement

2.C.1. Transcription

AACR2 1.2B5, 6.2B4If an edition statement appears in more than one language or script, transcribe the statement that is in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, transcribe the statement that appears first.

2.C.2. Optionally, transcribe the parallel statement(s), each preceded by an equals sign.

Students' ed. = Éd. pour les étudiants

2.D. Statements of responsibility relating to the edition

AACR2 1.2C, 6.2C

2.D.1. Transcription AACR2 1.2C1, 6.2C1

Transcribe a statement of responsibility relating to one or more editions, but not to all editions, of a given work following the edition statement if there is one.

Guía para conocer los árboles / F. Masclans. - Ed. actualizada / por Oriol de Bolòs

Schachiapang : a modern revolutionary Peking opera / [performed by the Peking Opera Troupe of Peking]. - Deluxe ed. / rev. collectively by the Modern Peking Opera Troupe of Peking

2.D.2. Extrapolated from AACR2 1.2C3 and 1.2C4

Optionally, give parallel statements of responsibility relating to the edition.

2.D.3. Doubtful statements of responsibility AACR2 1.2C2

In case of doubt as to whether a statement of responsibility applies to all editions or issues, etc., or only to some, give such a statement in the title and statement of responsibility area.

2.E. Additional edition statement

AACR2 1.2D, 6.2D

2.E.l. Transcription AACR2 1.2D1, 6.2D1 ISBD (NBM)

2.4.1
If an item is a revision of an edition (a named reissue of a particular edition containing changes from that edition), or belongs to an edition which is equivalent to the first named edition, give an additional edition statement.

2nd ed., rev. issue

2.E.2. Adapted from AACR2 1.2D3, 6.2D1

Optionally, give additional edition statements naming an unchanged reissue, if the item is considered to be of particular importance to the archive or cataloguing agency.

Italian version, reissued

2.F. Statements of responsibility relating to an additional edition statement

2.F.l. Transcription

ISBD (NBM) 2.5.1Statements of responsibility relating to an additional edition statement are transcribed in accordance with the provisions of 2.D.

2nd ed., reissued / with an afterword by the course convenor

3: Publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc., and date(s) of creation

3.0. Scope and definitions

3.0.A. Scope

This area covers the description of public release information for audiovisual items, and the description of date(s) of creation for unpublished audiovisual items.

3.0.B. Definitions

3.0.B.1. Published

The term published here generally means (commercially) issued, mass-produced items available for the public. Note that material available through some computer networks, e.g. the Internet , is also included in this definition.

3.0.B.2. Production

Here production applies to a film , or television or radio programme prepared for public release. In addition, production details also sometimes occur on published sound recordings produced from the late 1980s on.

3.0.B.3. Distribution

Distribution is conducted by an agent or agency having exclusive or shared marketing rights for an item.

3.0.B.4.

All of the above usually bear reasonable identifying information, or would be released with good publicity information which may assist with identification.

3.0.B.5. Broadcast

Broadcast is a form of publishing through public dissemination of programme(s). Broadcasts, however, are not mass-produced and may or may not include sufficient written information for their identification.

3.0.B.6. Unpublished

Unpublished items are generally created for internal or private use and are not intended to be mass-produced, published, produced, distributed or broadcast. These may or may not include sufficient written information for their identification.

3.0.B.7. See also Appendix D, Glossary, for further information about publication, release, issue; published (item); unpublished (items); broadcast; distribution; Internet ; production company (for sound recordings); production company (for film , television and radio); sponsor; commercial sponsor.

3.0.C. Functions of names
Extrapolated and adapted from FIAF 3.7

Depending on the particular case of the material being catalogued the names relating to the functions of publishing, producing, distributing, broadcasting, or manufacturing will either:

(i) have prominence as the publisher, etc., e.g. where a record or production company or sponsor has control over the artistic and/or intellectual content of the item (the item being either a television or radio programme, published sound recording or video, or a separately catalogued commercial or advertisement, etc.);

(ii) be better described as the manufacturer, e.g. where a record or production company is commissioned to manufacture a product, and as such has limited or no control over the artistic and/or intellectual content (see also 3.G section and "Unesco (Philips)" example in 3.D.6); or

(iii) be best described in a note, or, alternatively omitted, e.g. where a commercial sponsor has paid for one or more advertisement(s) to be broadcast during a programme (and the programme as a whole is being catalogued).

3.A. Preliminary rule

3.A.1. Punctuation

Developed from ISBD (NBM) Area 4, Punctuation pattern

Unless commencing with a new line, precede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ).
Precede a second or subsequently named place of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., by a space, semicolon, space ( ; ).
Precede the name of a publisher, producer/production company, distributor, broadcaster, etc., by a space, colon, space ( : ).
Enclose a supplied statement of function of publisher, production company, distributor, broadcaster, etc., in square brackets. Precede the first bracket by a space and follow the last bracket by a space ( [ ] ).
Precede the date of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., by a comma, space (, ).
Enclose details of manufacture (place, name, dates) in parentheses ( ( ) ).
Precede the name of a manufacturer by a space, colon, space ( : ).
Precede the date of manufacture by a comma, space (, ).

. - Place : name [function], date

. - Place : name [function], date (Place of manufacture : Manufacturer, date of manufacture)

. - Place : name [function 1], date ; place : name [function 2], date

Unpublished materials only:
Unless commencing with a new line, precede date(s) of creation by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ). Do not include any other information in this area for unpublished materials.

3.A.2. Sources of information
Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2

See also: 3.C.3

Take information recorded in this area from:

  • the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);

  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying documentation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist's worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);

  • a container that is an original part of the item (e.g. sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from

  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher's or distributor's brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film , tape box for storing audio tape), or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate (see 7.B.3).

Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4

Enclose information in square brackets only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information is known, or is at least probable. Where this information is uncertain, give a question mark after it.

3.B. General rule

Developed from RAD 1.4A1
Based on AACR2 1.4B1, 1.4C8, 1.4D9, 1.4F9, 1.4F10, 6.4C1, 6.4C2

3.B.1.

Use this area to record:

either

a) information about the place, name and date of publishing, (commercially) releasing or issuing, producing, distributing and broadcasting (and, optionally, manufacturing) activities,

or

b) Date(s) of creation of an unpublished item .

3.B.1.1. Do not record here the date(s) of creation for published, produced, distributed, broadcast, etc., items. For such items give the date(s) of creation in a note.

3.B.1.2. Do not record here a place, name or date of publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., for unpublished items. For such items give only the date(s) of creation here.

3.B.1.3. Make notes on the publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., information which is considered as important and which is not given in this area (see 7.B.12).

3.B.1.4. For treatment of analytic entries subsequently linked to a host item , see 9.1.A.3.

3.B.2. Published, produced, distributed, broadcast items

3.B.2.1. Reproductions and reissues AACR2 1.4B5

If the original publication details are covered by a label which contains publication details relating to a reproduction , re-publication etc., give details of the reproduction or re-publication here. Give the details of the original in a note if they can be ascertained readily (see 7.B.12).

Chicago : Standard
Note: Also published on the Columbia label in the US. A label for Standard in Chicago is pasted over the Columbia label.

Sydney : Palings
Note: Also published on the Sun label in Canada. A sticker label for Palings in Sydney covers the Sun label.

3.B.2.2. Fictitious publication information
Adapted from AACR2 1.4B6
Adapted from ARSC 5.B.5

If the sources of information are known to have fictitious publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc. details, give them in the conventional order. Supply the real publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., details as a correction if they are known.

Belfast [i.e. Dublin : s.n.], 1982

Camden, N.J. : Standard [i.e. Victor Talking Machine Company]

3.B.2.3.AACR2 1.4B4
See also: 1.F.1.1

Give the names of places, persons or bodies as they appear, omitting accompanying prepositions unless case endings would be affected. Use abbreviations as instructed for place names in AACR2.

Berolini

... : Im Deutschen Verlag

but

Paris

not

À Paris

... : University of Leeds, Dept. of Spanish

not

... : University of Leeds, Department of Spanish

3.C. Place of publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc.

AACR2 1.4C, 6.4C

3.C.1. AACR2 1.4C1, 6.4C1

Transcribe the place of publication, production , distribution, or place from which the broadcast was made, etc., in the form and grammatical case in which it appears.

Köln

Lugduni Batavorum

Den Haag

Based on FIAF 3.2.1

For motion pictures and videorecordings, give the name of the country, rather than the local place, which relates to the function of the corporate body to follow.

Italy : Ambrosio [producer]

If the name of a place appears in more than one language or script, give the form in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, give the form that appears first.

3.C.2. AACR2 1.4C2
Supply another form of the name of a place if such an addition is considered desirable as an aid to identifying the place.

Lerpwl [Liverpool]

Christiania [Oslo]

3.C.3. Adapted from AACR2 1.4C3

If the name of the country, state, province, etc., is available from the sources of information (see 3.A.2), transcribe it after the name of the place if it is considered necessary for identification, or if it is considered necessary to distinguish the place from others of the same name. Supply the name of the country, state, province, etc., if it does not appear in the sources of information but is known and is considered necessary for identification or distinction, using the English form of the name if there is one. Use abbreviations according to AACR2. Alternatively, use the form in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency.

City and country, etc., appear in source of information:
Tolworth, England

Carbondale, Ill.

City alone appears in source of information:
Waco [Tex.]

London [Ont.]

Perth [W.A.]

3.C.4. AACR2 1.4C4

If a place name is found only in an abbreviated form in the sources of information, transcribe it as found, and add the full form or complete the name in square brackets.

Mpls [i.e. Minneapolis]

Rio [de Janeiro]

3.C.5. AACR2 1.4C5

If two or more places in which a publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., has offices are named in the sources of information, give the first named place. Give any subsequently named place that is given prominence by the layout or typography of the source of information. If the first named place and any place given prominence are not in the home country of the cataloguing agency, give also the first of any subsequently named places that is in the home country. Omit all other places.

Toronto
(Source of information reads: Toronto, Buffalo, London.
Cataloguing agency in Canada)

Montréal ; Toronto
(Toronto given prominence in typography)

Toronto ; Buffalo
(Source of information reads: Toronto, Buffalo, London
Cataloguing agency in the United States)

New York ; London ; Sydney
(London given prominence by typography. Cataloguing agency in Australia)

For items with two or more places relating to two or more publishers, production companies, distributors, broadcasters, etc., see 3.D.8-3.D.9.

3.C.6. AACR2 1.4C6

If the local place of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., is uncertain, supply the probable place in the main language of the source of information followed by a question mark. Enclose this supplied information in square brackets.

[Hamburg?]

If no probable local place can be given, supply if possible the name of the country, province, state, etc. If in such a case, the country, province, state, etc., is not certain, follow it by a question mark. Enclose this supplied information in square brackets.

[Canada]

[Manitoba?]

If no place or probable place can be given, give s.l. (sine loco) in square brackets, or, if applicable, its equivalent in a non-roman script.

[S.l.]

Paris : BMG Video [publisher] ; [s.l.] : Gemini programs [producer] ; [Paris] : Ariola France [distributor], 1994

3.C.7.AACR2 1.4C7

Optionally, give the full address of the publisher, production company, distributor, broadcaster, etc., after the name of the place. Enclose the full address in parentheses. Do not give the full address for major trade companies.

London (108 Gloucester Ave, London, NW1 8HX)

3.C.8. AACR2 1.4C8

Do not record a place of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., for an unpublished item. Do not record s.l. in such a case. For unpublished materials, see 3.H.

3.D. Name of publisher, producer (production company), distributor, broadcaster, etc.

3.D.1. AACR2 1.4D1, 6.4D1

Give the name of the publisher, producer (production company), broadcaster, etc., and, optionally, the distributor, following the place(s) to which it relates.

New York : RCA Victor

New York ; London : McGraw-Hill

London : Sussex Tapes ; Wakefield : Educational Productions

London : Gandalf Records : Distributed by Middle Earth Co.

[London] : Warner

3.D.2. Published sound recordings
Expanded from AACR2 6.4D2

If a sound recording bears both the name of the publishing company and the name of a subdivision of that company or a trade name or brand name used by that company (e.g. company label or record label name), give the name of the subdivision or the trade name or brand name as the name of the publisher.

Note that record companies often publish recordings under various labels (brand or trade names). This is often done to specifically target different market groups.

[London] : Ace of Diamonds
(Source of information reads: Decca Record Company. Ace of Diamonds)

A manufacturing company is assumed to be the publisher in the absence of any other publishing company.

Do not confuse the name of the manufacturer of the blank tape (e.g. AGFA, BASF, TDK) or blank disc (e.g. Audex Royal, Byer, for lacquer disc s) for a record label when cataloguing unpublished or broadcast recordings. If considered necessary, the name of the manufacturer of the blank may be recorded in a note.

3.D.3.
AACR2 6.4D3

If, however, a trade name appears to be the name of a series rather than of a publishing subdivision, give it as a series title. In case of doubt, treat the name as a series title (see Area 6).

London : Walt Disney Productions
(Disney storyteller)
(Source of information reads: Disney Storyteller. Walt Disney Productions)

Australia : Sound Heritage Assoc.
(Soundabout Australia)
(Australia's Heritage in Sound)
(CD label reads: Soundabout Australia. Sound Heritage Association Ltd. Title page of booklet reads: Australia's Heritage in Sound, at top; The Soundabout Australia Series, at bottom)

3.D.4. Published motion pictures and videorecordings
From FIAF Area 3, Introduction

"All corporate names, with the exception of copyright owner, may be recorded in this area regardless of function. Since the ways in which corporate names may relate to moving image materials are complex and highly diverse, archives - particularly those with special interests - should determine the types of functions they wish to include in this area, and these functions may vary from institution to institution. At a minimum, include the functions of production and release/distribution. Functions other than copyright which are not included here may be included in the notes. Distributor names should be included in this area whether they are personal or corporate.

When chosen for inclusion, functions should be listed in the following order: production, cooperation/in association with, sponsor (other than commercial sponsors for television), presenter, studio, laboratory, distribution/release, network or station on which aired. Accompany each name which represents a different function with a place, name and a date." (from The FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives. Area 3. Introduction)

For further information regarding the application of this area to film materials, refer to The FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives, Area 3.

3.D.5. Form of name
AACR2 1.4D2

Give the name of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., in the shortest form in which it can be understood and identified internationally.

: BBC

[Sydney, N.S.W.] : ABC Records

: BIS
(Source of information reads: Grammofon AB BIS)

: Columbia Phonograph Co.

not

: Columbia

: Columbia Graphophone (Aust.)

not

: Columbia

: Columbia Graphophone Record

not

:Columbia

but

: Columbia

(Early releases of recordings by Columbia predominantly displayed the full name of the company or subdivision or product on the label. Later the brand name or trade mark Columbia predominated)

If the shortest form of the name of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., is in more than one language or script, give the form that is in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, give the shortest form in the language or script that appears first.

: Yleisradio

not

: Yleisradio Oy

not

: Yleisradio Company

Optionally, give the shortest form in each language or script. Precede each parallel statement by an equals sign. If the shortest form is the same in all languages or scripts, give it only once.

: Statens Mediesamling = State Media Archive

but

: Høst

not

: Høst & Søns Forlag = Host & Son Publisher

3.D.6.
Based on AACR2 1.4D3

See also: 3.0.C

In giving the name of a publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., retain:

a) words or phrases indicating the function (other than solely publishing) performed by the person or body.

[Australia] : Philips, p 1978 : distributed in Australia by Phonogram

but

: Unesco (Philips)
(Source of information does not provide a linking phrase for these two names: Unesco as the publisher and Philips as the manufacturer)

b) parts of the name required to differentiate between record labels, publishers, producers, distributors, broadcasters, etc., or to identify subsidiary companies.

: ABC Records
: ABC for Kids
: JJJ
(Three of the record labels used by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation to market published sound recordings with ABC for Kids identifying sound recordings for children and JJJ identifying popular music recordings of the style broadcast from the ABC's pop radio station Triple J)

but

: Australian Broadcasting Corporation

not

: ABC Video
(published videocassette with moving image content)

3.D.7.
AACR2 1.4D4

If the name of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., appears in a recognisable form in the title and statement of responsibility area, give it here in the shortest possible form.

Rádiófónia [sound recording] : Készült a Telefonhirmondó megindulásának 100. évfordulóján / Magyar Rádió ; Antenna Hungária RT ; Matáv RT. - [Budapest] : MR, p 1993 (Biem Artisjus)
(Here MR for Magyar Rádió appears as the label)

If in such a case the publisher, producer, distributor, etc., is a person, give the initials and surname of the person.

The waterdragon [electronic resource] / composed and recorded by Dorian Dowse. - [Sydney] : D. Dowse

3.D.8.
AACR2 1.4D5

If an item has two or more publishers, producers, distributors, broadcasters, etc., describe it in terms of the first named and the corresponding place(s). In the following cases, add subsequently named broadcasters, publishers, distributors, etc., and their corresponding places (if they are different from the place(s) already named):

a) when the first and subsequently named entities are linked in a single statement.

[Germany] : Saarlaendischer Rundfunk ; Italy : co-production with Eco, 1995
(Here Saarlaendischer Rundfunk has co-produced the recording with Eco)

Personal Record specially made for Olds Motor Works (Columbia Phonograph Co.)
(Here Personal Record is the label name used by the Columbia Phonograph Company for this recording)

b) when the first named entity is a distributor, releasing agency, etc., and a publisher or producer is named subsequently.

Sydney : distributed by Desert Stream Resources : Christian Life Centre and Firepower Ministries International, c 1996
(Here the description follows the layout on the label with the joint producers/copyright holders following the name of the distributor)

c) when a subsequently named entity is clearly distinguished as the/a principal publisher, producer, broadcaster, etc. by layout or typography.

Sydney : EMI ; Canberra : National Library of Australia, [1981]
(Second publisher given equal prominence by typography on album cover)

d) when the subsequently named publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., is in the home country of the cataloguing agency and the first named publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., is not.

Paris : Gauthier-Villars ; Chicago : University of Chicago Press (Cataloguing agency in the United States)

New York : Dutton ; Toronto : Clarke, Irwin
(Cataloguing agency in Canada)

Follow this rule for multipart items when the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., or its name changes in the course of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc.

3.D.9.
AACR2 1.4D6

Optionally, give the name and, when appropriate, the place of a distributor when the first named entity is a publisher, producer, etc.

Djursholm : BIS ; New York : distributed by Qualitron Imports

3.D.10.
AACR2 1.4D7

If the name of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., is unknown, give s.n. (sine nomine) or its equivalent in square brackets, if applicable, in a non-roman script.

Paris : [s.n.]

3.D.11.
AACR2 1.4D8

In case of doubt about whether a named agency is a publisher, producer, broadcaster or a manufacturer, treat it as a publisher, producer or broadcaster.

3.D.12.
AACR2 1.4D9, 6.4D4

Do not record the name of a publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., for unpublished items.

Do not give s.n. in either case. For unpublished materials, see 3.H.

3.E. Optional addition. Statement of function of publisher, producer (production company), distributor, broadcaster, etc.

AACR2 1.4E, 6.4E

3.E.1.
AACR2 1.4E1, 6.4E1

Add to the name of a publisher, producer (production company), distributor, broadcaster, etc., one of the terms below:

publisher
producer (use for a producing entity other than a production company)
production company
distributor
broadcaster

unless:

a) the phrase naming the publisher, producer (production company), distributor, broadcaster, etc., includes words that indicate the function performed by the person(s) or body (bodies) named

or

b) the function of the publishing, producing, distributing, broadcasting, etc., agency is clear from the context.

Montréal : National Film Board of Canada [production company] ; London : Guild Sound and Vision [distributor]

New York : Sunflower ; [London] : Virgin Records [distributor]

[London] : EMI Records [production company] : PMI [publisher] ; Neuilly-sur-Seine : EMI-France [distributor], 1994

but

New York : released by Beaux Arts

and

Rabat : Radio Maroc

3.E.2.

Alternatively, if the same company performs several functions and the place name and date are identical for each, the statements of function may be combined within one set of square brackets. Separate functions with a comma, space.

Chicago : Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation [production company, distributor]

3.E.3.

Alternatively, if two or more companies perform the same function, and the place names and dates are identical for each, they may be listed together followed by a space, colon, space.

Paris : France 2 : Société française de production [production companies], 1992

3.F. Date of publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc.

For guidance on transcription of date information for published, produced, distributed, etc., items, see 3.F.1. For guidance on transcription of date information for broadcast items, see 3.F.2.

3.F.1. date of published, produced, distributed, etc., items AACR2 1.4F, 6.4F

3.F.1.1. AACR2 1.4F1, 6.4F1

For published, produced, distributed, etc., items, give the date (i.e. year) of publication, production , distribution, etc., of the edition, issue, release, revision, etc., named in the edition area. If there is no edition statement, give the date of the first publication, production , distribution, etc., of the edition to which the item belongs. Give dates in Western style Arabic numerals. If the date found in the item is not of the Gregorian or Julian calendar, give the date as found and follow it with the year(s) of the Gregorian or Julian calendar. Specify the name of the calendar, e.g. Jewish, Chinese, in a note.

, 1975

, 4308 [1975]

, [4308 i.e. 1975]

, 5730 [1969 or 1970]
Note: dated in accordance with the Jewish calendar

, anno 18 [1939] not anno XVIII

, 2628 [1968]
Note: dated in accordance with the Chinese calendar

3.F.1.2. Varied from AACR2 1.4F2

Give the correct date for the item. If the date in the sources of information is incorrect, enclose the correct date in square brackets. If necessary, explain the discrepancy in a note.

, [1967]
Note: date given on sleeve as 1697

, [1987]
Note: date of publication erroneously given as 19857 on sleeve

3.F.1.3. AACR2 1.4F3

Give the date of the particular re-publication of a recording as the date of publication, production, etc., only if the re-publication is specified in the edition or issue area. In this case give only the date of the named re-publication here. Optionally, include a note about the original publication date (see 7.B.9).

, 1987
Note: Reissue of discs first published between 1936 and 1942
(This reissue is a compilation album)

, 1971
Note: Originally published as a sound disc in 1963, reissued as a cassette in 1971
(Here the reissued cassette is the item being catalogued)

3.F.1.4. AACR2 1.4F4

If the publication or production , etc., date differs from the date of distribution, add the date of distribution if it is considered to be significant by the archive or cataloguing agency. If the publisher or producer, etc., is different from the distributor, give the date(s) after the name(s) to which they apply.

London : Educational Records, 1973 ; New York : Edcorp [distributor], 1975

Toronto : Royal Ontario Museum, 1971 ; Beckenham [England] : Edward Patterson [distributor]
(Distribution date known to be different but not recorded)

London : Columbia Graphophone Co., 1921, [distributed 1923]

If the publication or production date are the same as the distribution date, give the date after the last named publisher, producer or distributor.

New York : American Broadcasting Co. [production company] : released by Xerox Films, 1973

3.F.1.5. Expanded from AACR2 1.4F5

Optional addition. Give the latest date of copyright or p notice following the date of publication, production, distribution, etc., if the date of copyright (videos) or p notice (sound recordings) is different.

, 1967, c 1965

, [1981], p 1975

Where the p notice or copyright date extends over two consecutive years (e.g. different years apply to each side of a recorded sound disc), give the earlier year followed by a slash and the later year.

, p 1985/1986

, c 1977/1978

Where the p notice or copyright date extends over two years that are not consecutive (e.g. different years apply to each side of a recorded sound disc), give the earlier year followed by a comma, space, and the later year.

, p 1985, 1987

3.F.1.6. AACR2 1.4F7

If no date of publication, production , distribution, copyright or manufacture is available from the sources of information, supply an approximate date of publication, production , distribution, etc. (see 3.A.2).

Optionally, give an approximate date of publication, production , distribution, etc., if it differs considerably from the date of copyright, p notice or manufacture.

, [1982?], c 1949

3.F.1.7. AACR2 1.4F6

If the dates of publication, production, distribution, etc., are unknown, give the date of copyright or p notice, or, in its absence, the date of manufacture (indicated as such).

, c 1967

, p 1983

, 1979 pressing

3.F.1.8. Optional addition. If applicable, also give the date of legal deposit with an appropriate abbreviation in the language or script of the archive or cataloguing agency.

L.D. 1985
(English)

D.L. 1996
(Spanish)

DL 1992
(French)

3.F.1.9. AACR2 1.4F8

If two or more dates are available for the various parts of the multipart item (e.g. when an item is published or produced in parts over a number of years), give the earlier and later or earliest and latest dates separated by a hyphen.

, 1968-1973

In describing a multipart item that is not yet complete, give the earliest or earlier date only, and follow it with a hyphen and four spaces.

, 1968-

Optionally, when the item is complete, add the latest or later date.

, 1968-1980

3.F.1.10. Based on AACR2 6.4F2

If the date(s) of recording are available in the sources of information, give it (them) in a note (see 7.B.11). Show more than one date as a range of dates.

[New York] : Music Guild, 1971
Note: Recorded in 1961

[London] : HMV, p 1987
Note: "Originally recorded by EMI Records [sic] Ltd between

1933-06-08 and 1942-07-08" (sleeve)

New York : CBS
Note: Recorded in New York City between 1923-02-16 and 1933-11-24

3.F.2. date of radio and television broadcasts

3.F.2.1. Based on RAD 8.4F
Based on FIAF 3.5.1

For broadcast sound recordings, television videos and kine scope films and production films, record the date of the transmission which applies to the first date of broadcast.

Optionally, standardise presentation of calendar dates to YYYY-MM-DD.

: RSCH & Associés, [broadcast] 1992-10-26

Paris : France 2 [broadcaster] : Société française de production [production company], 1992-10-12

Optionally, include the time of broadcast, either as start time or as start and end times.

, 1993-10-23 (18:00)

[Sydney] : ABC Classic FM [broadcaster, producer], 1997-01-19 (20:30)

, 1997-08-12 (22:15-23:00)

3.F.2.2. Based on RAD 8.4F2
Based on AACR2 6.4F2

When available, record other dates (e.g. date(s) of original recording, production date(s) or re-broadcast date(s)) in a note (see 7.B.11-12).

, [broadcast] 1968-01-02
Note: Recorded 1967-12-15, re-broadcast 1968-01-03

London : BBC Transmission Service, 1954-
Note: broadcast by the ABC in Australia from 1956

[London] : BBC [broadcaster], 1951-03-11
Note: Recorded 1951-03-07

[London] : BBC [broadcaster], 1949-02-25
Note: Recorded 1949-02-25

[London] : BBC [broadcaster]
Note: BBC recording made in July 1949 and believed to have been dubbed from an unknown earlier source. Original BBC broadcast date unknown

3.F.2.3. If a date of broadcast is recorded in this area, do not also record here a date of publication, distribution, etc., nor any information about publishers, distributors or manufacturers. Instead give date of publication, distribution or manufacturing in a note (see 7.B.9 or 7.B.33, as appropriate).

3.F.2.4. If a b is subsequently published, and the publication is being catalogued, give the complete details of the publication here, and the details of the broadcast in a note (see 3.C-3.F.1 and 7.B.9).

[Muscat : Omani Ministry of information, producer, 1994]. - 2 sound discs (CD) + booklet (77 p.)
Note: broadcast by the Suedwestfunk, Baden-Baden, 1993-08-11 (22:05-23:30)

[Sydney] : Columbia, p 1993
Note: Originally broadcast in Australia between 1946 and 1956
(A published 2 CD set of episodes of selected radio dramas)

3.F.2.5. Developed from AACR2 1.4F8

If two or more dates are found on the various parts of the multipart work (e.g. when a work is broadcast in parts or episodes over a period of time), give the earlier and later or earliest and latest dates separated by a hyphen.

, 1968-1973

If actual dates are known for broadcast material prefer the dates to years only, and separate the dates by a double hyphen.

[Australia] : Australian Broadcasting Corporation ; [broadcast] 1949-02-28--1976-09-30
(Elements of data from an entry for a serial cataloguing record)

In describing a multipart item that is not yet complete, give the earliest or earlier date only, and follow it with a hyphen and four spaces (for a year) or a double hyphen and ten spaces (for an actual date, if suggested format is followed).

, 1968-

, 1997-01-12--

When the item is complete, add the latest or later date.

, 1968-1980

, 1997-01-12--1997-02-02

3.G. Place, name and date of manufacture

AACR2 1.4G, 6.4G

3.G.1. AACR2 1.4G1, 6.4G1

If the name of the publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., is unknown and the place and name of the manufacturer are available from the sources of information, give the place and name of the manufacturer.

[S.l. : s.n.], 1970 (London : High Fidelity Sound Studios)

3.G.2. AACR2 1.4G2

In recording the place and name of the manufacturer, follow the instructions in sections 3.C-3.D.

3.G.3.AACR2 1.4G3

If the date of the manufacture is given in place of an unknown date of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., (see 3.F.1.7), do not repeat it here.

3.G.4.AACR2 1.4G4, 6.4G2

Optional addition. Give the place, name of manufacturer, and/or date of manufacture if they are found in the sources of information and differ from the place, name of publisher, producer, distributor, broadcaster, etc., and the date of publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., and are considered important by the archive or cataloguing agency

London : Arts Council of Great Britain, 1976 (Twickenham : CTD Printers, 1974)

[Sydney] : Official Congress Record, 1928 (Parlophone)

[Hayman Island, Qld.] : Royal Hayman Hotel Souvenir, 1950 (Sydney : A.R.C.)

[Newhaven, Conn.] : Yale Dramatic Association ; distributed by Culters Record Shop, 1958 ([s.l.] : RCA Victor)

3.H. Date(s) of creation (unpublished items only)

3.H.1. The date(s) of creation of an unpublished items are the date(s) of recording or capturing the sound (i.e. of the recording session); shooting the film or video, or of a person creating a computer program, etc.

3.H.2. Based on AACR2 6.4F3, 4.4B1

Give the date(s) of creation for the unpublished item being described either as a single date or range of dates (i.e. inclusive dates and/or predominant dates). Always give inclusive dates when applicable.

Optionally, standardise presentation of calendar dates to YYYY-MM-DD.

1967-04-15

1934

1984-12-17--1984-12-27
Note: Oral history interview conducted on 17, 19, 21 and 27 of December 1984

3.H.3. RAD 1.4B2 AACR2 1.4F10

Give the date or inclusive dates of unpublished fonds or collections (including those containing published items but not published as collections). When providing predominant dates specify them as such preceded by the word predominant (or its equivalent in another language and/or script).

1952

1947-1958

1923-1985; predominant 1972-1983

3.H.4. Alternatively, enter date(s) of creation in a note instead. Include additional information in the note, as necessary (see 7.B.11).

Note: Recorded 1928

Note: Recorded 1972-09-10

Note: Recorded Sydney, early 1973

Note: Premiere performance recorded 1988-11-14--1988-11-15, Queanbeyan Bicentennial Hall, N.S.W.

3.I. Reproductions (which are themselves unpublished)

3.I.1. A reproduction itself may be unpublished, broadcast or published. Apply this rule only when the reproduction itself is unpublished and where a separate catalogue record is made for the reproduction .

An example of this situation may occur when a catalogue record is prepared for a preservation, dubbing master or reference copy created in-house by an archive or collecting institution, and where the purpose of that copy is for internal use only, and not for broadcast, publication or other public distribution. This may occur with in-house compilations, or (according to the institution's practice and policy), if a new catalogue record is created for each one-to-one copy of identical content.

In these cases do not also give the place and name of the archive or collecting institution in this area, as this would mislead users to believe that the item is a published or broadcast item. Instead, give information about place and name of the archive or collecting institution in Area 7.

3.I.2. Based on RAD 1.4B3

Here give the date(s) of creation of the unpublished reproduction . As necessary, include explanatory term(s). Give the date(s) of creation of the original in a note.

Dubbed flat 1989-07-15
Note: Recorded 1956

Re-recorded and enhanced in 1992
Note: Recorded Melbourne Town Hall, 1936-02-06

Reference dat copied 1995-02-16--1995-02-18
Note: Compilation of edited selections from field recordings made in various locations in Poland between 1965 and 1966

Dubbed flat 1986
Note: This copy prepared by the NFSA, Canberra
Note: Recorded in NSW, 1956-1958

not

Canberra : NFSA ; dubbed flat 1986
Note: Recorded in NSW, 1956-1958

Playback copy dubbing 1996
Area 7: Reference copy dubbed by the NSA, London

not

London : NSA, p 1996

4: Copyright

4.0. Scope and definitions

4.0.1. Copyright can be defined as the legal right to control the use of the intellectual property in a work and in the authorised forms in which the work exists. The copyright owner has the right to control, or at least to receive appropriate payment for, the reproduction of his works. copyright endures for a limited time which varies between territories. This is not the case with traditional ownership (see 4.0.5) which may not necessarily be limited by a statutory period. copyright may also include moral rights, for instance of authors, composers and performers, to be named and to prevent their works being distributed with another name or to have their work changed in any unauthorised manner. Moral rights presently apply in the legislation of some countries.

4.0.2. Sound and audiovisual recordings usually involve a multiplicity of rights. In the case of published recordings they may include:

  1. performances of published pieces of music which involve specific mechanical rights (mechanical rights are "generally understood as being the author's right to reproduce literary, dramatic or musical works in the form of recordings (phonograms or audiovisual fixations), produced mechanically in the widest sense of the word including electro-acoustic and electronic procedures. The mechanical rights in musical works with or without accompanying words are usually administered by authors' societies or other appropriate organizations. Some copyright laws provide for compulsory licenses to be granted to producers of phonograms of musical works and any words pertaining thereof." WIPO Glossary, p. 157);
  2. the exclusive moral rights of authors in the words and of composers in the titles that have been recorded;
  3. the performances themselves, which involve performer rights;
  4. a recording right which is owned by the record company which released the recordings.Beyond these rights in the recorded item s there are other rights attached to the artwork, accompanying documentation (e.g. sleeve notes) and design which are associated with the packaging of the recording.

4.0.3. broadcast recordings may involve similar rights to published recordings but with the addition of the broadcasting company as a rights owner in the programme as broadcast.

4.0.4. Unpublished recordings, including private recordings made for private purposes which might be donated to an audiovisual archive or library, will normally be covered by official recording or deposit agreements made between the recordist and the person or persons being recorded or between the collecting institution and the donor. Such agreements will typically include statements relating to access, ranging from unrestricted access to prohibition on any form of access whatsoever. Reference to such agreements must therefore be made, not in this area, but in the Notes area (see 7.B.29).

4.0.5. Traditional material (traditional ownership)A related issue which is not always subject to legislation concerns materials from traditional societies. This involves an ethical dimension to the rights (i.e. which may be broader than the legal definition of 'moral rights' mentioned in 4.0.1). This is particularly the case with recordings of certain traditional societies. Ownership of the content of such sound or audiovisual recordings may remain the intellectual property of the person(s) who have been recorded or who have authorised the performance. In such cases archives must strive to document this information sensitively, accurately and responsibly.

4.0.6. Copyright therefore obtains at many levels for sound recordings and in different ways depending on the type of recording. For published videos, for instance, it is the copyright date rather than the date of the p notice which applies. Furthermore, each statement may represent different provisions depending on the territory in which the rights are administered. It will therefore be impossible, with present means available, to express these different layers with any clarity in the approach to descriptive cataloguing adopted by these cataloguing rules unless it is decided to adopt a multilevel or analytic approach (see Chapter 9). If not, it is recommended that archives and cataloguing agencies limit the information stated in Area 4 to one specific copyright layer: for published and broadcast recordings this will be the owner of the recording (as associated with the stated p notice) or broadcast rights; for unpublished recordings this will consist of the name of the recordist together with a statement of any access restrictions imposed by the person or persons recorded. In addition, since enforcement of copyright applies to a period of time after the rights holder's death, it is strongly recommended that dates of birth and death are included when indexing with the names of contributors such as interviewees, performers, authors and composers.

4.0.7. Alternatively, copyright and p notice information relating to a published recording or group of recordings may be adequately documented instead as part of Area 3 (see 3.F.1.5-3.F.1.7).

4.A. Preliminary rule

4.A.1. Punctuation
Based on FIAF 4.1.1
Precede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space or start a new paragraph (. - )

The punctuation should follow the order and format of copyright documentation for countries which have registration systems.

For countries that do not have registration systems, precede the date by a space, semi-colon, space ( ; )

4.A.2. Sources of information
See also: 0.A.1.3, 9.0.B.2,

4.A.2.1. For published sound recordings, take the information from the container packaging and/or the label. For recorded music, copyright ownership statements are normally to be found on the packaging preceded by a p within a circle and a date expressed as a year (normally only the symbol and the date appear on the label). Note that copyright statements preceded by a small c in a circle, ©, which appear on the packaging refer almost invariably to aspects of the packaging itself or to accompanying documentation such as sleeve notes. Do not include such statements here for sound recordings.

4.A.2.2. If there is no p notice or similar sign visible on the published item leave this area blank.

4.A.2.3. For broadcast recordings, take the information from any relevant source.

4.A.2.4. For published videorecordings (where the copyright date rather than the p notice normally applies), take the information from the title frames or from the packaging.

4.A.2.5. For unpublished recordings, take the information from any relevant source, though typically this will be held in documentation accompanying the recording or the collection to which it belongs, for example a deposit agreement form.

4.B. Copyright statement

4.B.1. The first element of the copyright statement is the word copyright followed by a colon and a space.

4.B.2. Give the name of the copyright owner as it appears in the sources of information. Enclose any information about supposed or unspecified rights holders in square brackets. Where available include the date of copyright or p notice. Do not include any indication of country unless it is relevant to copyright registration (see 4.C). Copyright: Black Saint

Copyright: HAT HUT Records Ltd

Copyright: [various British and American radio stations - see individual item s]

Copyright: BBC

Copyright: Richard Margoschis

Copyright: Willow Music ; p 1987

4.B.3. If it is evident that the item is not protected by copyright (e.g. the period for which copyright endured on the item has expired), give:  Copyright: [public domain]

4.B.4. If copyright in the item is unknown, either give no statement at all or give:
 Copyright: [unknown]

4.C. Registration notices

Based on FIAF 4.3. If the cataloguing agency operates in or on behalf of a country which has a national registration or legal deposit system, enter the copyright registration information (including the name of the country) in the same order and format as it appears in national bibliographies or registration listings. If further clarification is required (e.g. of inaccuracies), give such additional information in a note (see 7.B.13).

Copyright: US : CBS Records Inc.; DCRE 1988; DPUB 27Jul88; DREG 26Sept88; SR-96-555

Copyright: US : Jenson Publications Inc.; DCRE 1981; DPUB 2Jan81; DREG 23Feb81; PA-102-784

4.D. Traditional material ownership statement

Use the term copyright to indicate consistently in the catalogue the significance of the statement to follow. Qualify it with a suitable explanatory term for the material such as traditional ownership. Give any extended contextual information in a note (see 7.B.13).

Copyright (traditional ownership): Traditional Owners of the Waake Land Holding Estate

Copyright: Central Land Council

Note: The people who are the traditional owners of these songs hold the right to authorise their performance, and/or access to and/or copying of the recordings. Songs were sung by Traditional Owners of the Waake Land Holding Estate for the Aboriginal Land Commissioner as evidence of land ownership of the Waake Land Holding Estate for the Kaytej/Warlpiri/Warlmanpa Land Claim, heard before the Aboriginal Land Commissioner in 1981.

Recordings were made of this performance by Grace Koch on behalf of the Central Land Council

(In this example the traditional ownership of the content of the recording is by the Traditional Owners of the Waake Land Holding Estate. Additionally there is copyright in the physical recording. Here Grace Koch, employed by the Central Land Council to participate in the land claim case, recorded the performance as part of the evidence during the proceedings. Therefore the Central Land Council owns the recording rights)

5: Physical description

5.0. Introduction

Rules

Area 5: Physical description

5.0. Introduction

The rules in this chapter cover the physical description of sound recordings in all media, i.e., discs, tapes, wires, cylinders, sound recordings on film or video formats, and digital audio files. This chapter also briefly includes basic physical description for moving image and electronic resource format s (local access files). For detailed physical description of moving images together with sound the FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film archives should be used. For detailed physical description of electronic resources the ISBD (ER) should be used.

In the early years of sound recording many different format s and speeds for cylinders and shellac discs existed. Specialised archives should give physical description for these early formats as precisely as is necessary for the archive's or cataloguing agency's requirements, e.g. for cylinders duration, diameter, groove characteristic, speed, or, for sound discs diameter and speed. information relating to superficial design features such as picture disc or sound postcard should be given in a note (see 7.B.14.1).

At the time of writing these rules, technology for digital audio files and mass storage systems is still evolving. Therefore the given formats, technical data, or other physical characteristics of future systems may have been unknown at the time of preparing these rules. It is therefore recommended that the cataloguing agency or archive secure at least a minimum of information and description of the physical characteristics in this area for local access files, to be able to obtain and configure the necessary equipment to play back or reproduce the audiovisual content correctly. Also, where either local or remote access files are described, the system requirements and/or mode of access should be documented as a note (see 7.B.0) for the same reason.

Note that equipment devised to control mechanical instruments (like wooden pin cylinders for flute organs, metal pin discs for musical clocks, punched paper tapes for street organs, rolls for player piano) are not covered by these rules.

 

5.A. Preliminary rule

5.A.1. Punctuation

Developed from ISBD (NBM) Area 5, Punctuation patternPrecede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ) or start a new paragraph.
Precede other physical details (i.e., other than specific material designation and extent, or dimensions) by a space, colon, space ( : )
Precede dimensions by a space, semicolon, space ( ; )
Precede each statement of accompanying material by a space, plus sign, space ( + )
Enclose detailed qualifying information for each element in parentheses ( () ).

5.A.2. Sources of information

Take information recorded in this area from any appropriate source. Take explicitly or implicitly stated information from the item itself.

5.B. Extent of item, specific material designation and specific type of format

5.B.1. Extent of item and specific material designation
Based on and expanded from ISBD (NBM) 5.1.1 & Appendix D
Expanded from AACR2 6.5B1, 7.5B1, adapted from AACR2 9.5B1
Extracted and expanded from ISBD (ER) 5.1.1-5.1.2
The first element of the physical description area names and numbers the physical unit or units constituting the item , adding other measures of extent as appropriate. The specific material designation identifies the particular class of material to which the item belongs and is given in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency.

sound cartridge
sound cassette
sound cylinder
sound disc
sound tape reel
sound wire reel
sound track film reel

videocartridge
videocassette
videodisc
videoreel

film cartridge
film cassette
film loop
film reel

electronic chip cartridge
electronic tape reel
electronic tape cassette
electronic disk
electronic tape reel
electronic optical disc

5.B.1.1. Extent of item Based on AACR2 1.5B1, 6.5B1, 7.5B1

Precede the specific material designator with an Arabic numeral to indicate the number of physical units (i.e. carriers) for the item .

2 sound cassettes

1 sound disc

1 sound track film reel

3 film reels

3 videocartridges

1 electronic disk

1 electronic optical disc

5.B.1.2. Based on AACR2 6.5B1, 7.5B1 Optional rules Optionally, where the general material designation is applied in the title (see 1.C.1) omit the term sound, film , video or electronic from the specific material designation, unless it is required to make the specific material designation understandable, as with sound track film .

Area 1: A whiter shade of pale [sound recording]
1 disc 5.B.1.3. Optionally, where the specific material designation would normally be associated with a particular medium, but the item actually contains another medium, precede it with the appropriate term for the medium contained in the item .

Area 1: St Matthew Passion [sound recording]
2 sound videocassettes (U-matic) : digital

(U-matic video is sometimes used as a format for digitally recorded sound)

5.B.2. Specific type of format Adapted from ISBD (ER) 5.1.3
See also: 5.C.2.4, 5.D.6 The identification of a specific type of format may be given in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency as a qualifier.

Following is a list of terms for specific types of formats. The list is not exclusive. Additional terms may be applied as appropriate.

Betacam
Betamax
CD
CD-I
CD-R
CD-ROM
DAT
DCC
Digital S
diskette
DV
DVCPro
DVD
Exabyte
Hi8 (High 8)
lacquer
mini disc
MOD
S-VHS
U-matic
VCR
VHS
Video 8
Video 2000
VLD

2 videocassettes (U-matic)

1 sound disc (CD)

7 sound discs (lacquer)

1 electronic optical disc (CD-ROM)

1 sound cassette (DAT)

2 sound discs (metal mother)

1 videocassette (Hi8 )

1 videocassette (VHS)

1 sound cassette (Exabyte)

5.B.3. Further qualification of specific type of format In turn these specific types of formats may be further qualified as appropriate to the requirements of the archive or cataloguing agency.  

1 videocassette (VHS PAL )

1 sound videocassette (VHS Longplay, 122 min.)

1 electronic disk (diskette, 1.44 MB)

3 videocassettes (betacam SP)

5.B.4. Playing time (duration), fractional extent of item , and time code

5.B.4.1. Playing time (duration) Expanded from AACR2 1.5B4, 6.5B2, 7.5B2
Give the playing time of the recording in parentheses as follows. Where the format is qualified with more specific information, precede the duration with a comma and a space.

a) If the playing time is stated on the item , give it as stated.

1 sound tape reel (40 min.)

3 sound discs (CD, 2 hr., 45 min.)

b) If the playing time is not stated on the item but is readily ascertainable, give it.

1 videocassette (30 min.)

Note that archives with specific needs, e.g. broadcasters, may require exact duration for the content. In these cases give the exact duration of the content.

1 sound disc (3 min., 21 sec.)

c) Optionally, if the playing time is neither stated on the item nor readily ascertainable, either give an approximate time or omit this information.

1. sound wire reel (ca. 21 min.)

2 sound cassettes (DAT, ca. 3 hr., 30 min.)

d) Optionally, if the parts of a multipart item have a stated uniform playing time or an approximate uniform playing time, give the playing time of each part followed by each. Otherwise, give the total duration.

31 sound cassettes (30 min. each)

11 sound cassettes (ca. 90 min. each)

2 sound discs (1 hr.)

7 discs (lacquer, 2 hr., 10 min.)

1 sound videocassette (U-matic, 62 min.)

5.B.4.2. Multiple recordings and playing times (durations)
Expanded from AACR2 6.7B10

See also: 7.B.14.1 Give the duration of each part contained in an item without a collective title and described as a unit, or give the durations in a note (see 7.B.14 and 7.B.25).

sound cassettes (84 min. ; 95 min)
or
2 sound cassettes
Note: Durations: 84 min. ; 95 min.

1 sound disc (CD, 35 min. ; 27 min)
(CD without a collective title and containing two piano sonatas)

5.B.4.3. Fractional extent of item
Expanded from AACR2 6.5B3, 7.5B2
If the description is of a separately titled part of an item lacking a collective title (see 1.G.1), express the fractional extent in the form:

on side 3 of 2 sound discs
on reel 3 of 4 sound tape reels
on sides 1-3 of 2 sound discs
(if the parts are numbered or lettered in a single sequence)
or
on 1 side of 2 sound discs
on 1 reel of 3 sound tape reels
(if there is no sequential numbering)
or
starts at 43 min., 35 sec. on 1 sound cassette (DAT)
track 3 on side 2 of 1 sound disc
(if specific locational information for the recording on the carrier is available, and this information is required by the archive or cataloguing agency).

Add the duration of the part to such a statement (see also Chapter 9).

on 1 side of 1 sound cassette (25 min.)

on side 5 of 7 sound discs (15 min., 12 sec.)

starts at 3 min., 17 sec. on 1 sound cassette (DAT, 4 min., 12 sec.)
(time code of the start ID is given for this audio file)

5.B.4.4. Time code

Optionally, give the time code of the start ID and the end ID of an audio file as shown in the display on the recording/playback machine.

1 m 00 s - 43 m 20 s
(= 42'20" playing time of item 1 on a DAT-cassette)

43 m 35 s - 1 h 19 m 45 s
(= 36'10" playing time of item 2 on a DAT-cassette)

5.C. Other physical characteristics

Expanded from AACR2 6.5C1
Extracted from AACR2 7.5C1
Give the characteristics in the following order:

Type of recording (sound recordings and sound track films)
Playback or projection speed (all formats)
Groove characteristic (cylinders and analogue discs)
Track configuration (sound track films)
Number of sound tracks (sound recordings)
Playback mode (sound recordings)
Sound characteristics (films, videos, and electronic resources)
Colour (films, videos, and electronic resources)
Recording and reproduction characteristics (sound recordings)

5.C.1. Type of recording (sound recordings and sound track films)

5.C.1.1. Sound recordings
Expanded from AACR2 6.5C2
Give, for a disc or a tape, the type of recording (i.e., the way in which the sound is encoded on the item ).

1 disc (27 min.) : digital

4 tape reels (56 min.) : analogue

1 sound videocassettes (U-matic, 62 min.) : digital

Optionally, when available, qualify with the SPARS-Code. These three recording industry codes often appear on CDs and indicate the encoding on the three generations of 1. recording; 2. mixing/processing; and 3. reproduction .

A = analogue
D = digital
X = unknown

AAA
(analogue recording, mixing and reproduction )

AXD
(analogue recording, unknown mixing, digital reproduction )

DDD
(digital recording, mixing and reproduction )

1 sound cassette (DAT, 58 min.) : digital (ADD)

Where the codes alone would not indicate the sound quality of the final production , include a note in Area 7 with further detail, if it is known (or according to Chapter 10, if more than one copy is being described).

1 sound disc (CD, 64 min.) : digital (DDD)
(Digital recording 16 bit PCM, 44.1 kHz, editing 16 bit PCM 44.1 kHz, issued on CD 16 bit PCM, 44.1 kHz. An example of a high quality DDD. The normal expectation of DDD is that it would be high quality sound)

1 sound cassette (DCC, 29 min.) : digital (DDD)
Note: Mini disc recording, edited on SADIE, published on digital compact cassette.
(A low grade DDD. Here it is appropriate to note the detail if known, to explain the poorer sound quality, as this example is not what would normally be expected of DDD)

1 sound cassette (DAT, 58 min.) : digital (ADD)
Note: Original 78 rpm shellac disc, electrical playback processed with CEDAR DC1, DAT reproduction .

5.C.1.2. Sound track film
AACR2 6.5C2
ARSC 6.G.1
Give, for a sound track film, the type of recording (e.g. optical, magnetic), or the name of a unique recording system (e.g. Phillips-Miller).

3 sound track film reels (45 min.) : magnetic

5 sound track film reels (57 min.) : optical

2 sound track film reels (29 min.) : Phillips-Miller

5.C.2. Playback or projection speed (all formats)
Based on AACR2 6.5C3, 7.5C5
Give the playback or projection speed of the item .

5.C.2.1. Cylinders
ARSC 6.G.2
For cylinders, give the generic playback speed in revolutions per minute (rpm ).

1 sound cylinder : 160 rpm 5.C.2.2. Analogue discs
Expanded from AACR2 6.5C3
For analogue discs, give the playback speed in rpm . Examples of common playback speeds for analogue discs follow.

16 2/3 rpm
33 1/3 rpm
45 rpm
78 rpm

Optionally, round the playback speed to the nearest full figure.

17 rpm (= 16 2/3 rpm )
33 rpm (= 33 1/3 rpm )

Note that many pre-electric coarse groove discs require playback speeds less than or in excess of 78 rpm . Include the correct speed where known or make an explanatory note if the statement is in any way speculative.

1 sound disc : analogue, 81 rpm
Note: Playback speed ascertained from audition. 5.C.2.3. Sound tape and wire reels
Adapted and expanded from AACR2 6.5C3
Adapted from ARSC 6.H.2

For sound tape reels give the playback speed in centimetres per second (cm/sec). Round the playback speed to the nearest full figure, if appropriate. Give the generic playback speed for sound wire reels. Standard playback speeds for sound tape reels follow.

4,75 cm/sec
9,5 cm/sec = 3 3/4 ips
19 cm/sec (= 19,05) = 7 1/2 ips
38 cm/sec (= 38,1) = 15 ips
76 cm/sec (= 76,2) = 30 ips

4 sound tape reels (56 min.) : analogue, 76 cm/sec

1 sound wire reel : 19 cm/sec

5.C.2.4. Video formats For videorecordings, do not give the playback speed. Instead, give the specification of the video format either in this area (see 5.B.2-5.B.3) or in a note, if further detail is required. By specifying the video format, the correct playing equipment and speed can be chosen.

1 videocassette (VHS-C, 130 min., 30 sec.)

5.C.2.5. Films and sound track film s
AACR2 6.5C3, 7.5C5
For films and sound track films give the playback or projection speed in frames per second (fps) (see also 5.C.2.6).

5 sound track film reels (57 min.) : optical, 25 fps

5.C.2.6. Formats with pre-determined playback or projection speeds
AACR2 6.5C3, 7.5C5
Do not give the playback speed if it is standard for the type of item (e.g. 4,75 cm/sec for an analogue tape cassette; 24 fps for a sound film; 16 fps for a silent film ), or for discs where the playback machine is programmed to revolve at standard speed (e.g. for CDs, mini discs). 5.C.3. Groove characteristic (cylinders and analogue discs)

5.C.3.1.
ARSC 6.C.3
Optionally, for cylinders, give one of the following groove characteristics: coarse groove (100 groove s per inch; e.g., Edison 2-minute cylinders), microgroove (200 groove s per inch; e.g., Edison 4-minute cylinders), and other.  

1 sound cylinder : 160 rpm , microgroove

5.C.3.2.
AACR2 6.5C4
Give the groove characteristic of an analogue disc if it is not standard for the type of disc.

1 sound disc (38 min.) : analogue, 78 rpm , microgroove

5.C.4. Track configuration (sound track films)
AACR2 6.5C5
For sound track film s give the track configuration (e.g. centre track, edge track):

1 sound track film reel (10 min.) : magnetic, 25 fps, centre track

5.C.5. Number of sound tracks (sound recordings)
Expanded from AACR2 6.5C6
If readily ascertainable, for cartridges, cassettes, or tape reels, give the number of sound tracks, unless the number of tracks is standard for the item (e.g., the standard number of tracks for a cartridge is 8, and for an analogue cassette 4). If necessary, include the direction of play (i.e. unidirectional or bidirectional). A list of examples of the numbers of tracks which may occur on sound tape formats follows.

1 track
2 track
4 track
8 track
16 track
24 track
32 track

Note that this information is more commonly recognised in relation to sound tape formats, but that it may also apply to other sound formats. Where this occurs, and is known, this information may be included here, in the physical description for the item, as required.

5.C.6. Playback mode (sound recordings)
Expanded from AACR2 6.5C7
Give the playback mode if the information is readily available, using one or more of the following terms as appropriate. Some types of playback mode follow.

mono
stereo
binaural stereo (also known as dummyhead)
joint stereo (for a DATa reduced file)
quadrophonic
surround sound

1 sound disc (47 min.) : analogue, 33 1/3 rpm , stereo

2 sound tape reel s (65 min.) : analogue, 38 cm/sec, binaural stereo

2 sound cassettes (90 min.) : analogue, 2 track unidirectional, stereo

1 sound tape reel (20 min.) : analogue, 19 cm/secs, 2 track, mono

1 sound cassette (DAT, 5 min., 15 sec.) : 1 track, joint stereo

1 sound tape reel (28 min.) : digital, 38 cm/sec, 24 track

2 sound videocassettes (Hi8 , 12 min.) : digital, 16 track
Note: This 16 track recording is on 2 simultaneously running Hi8 -cassettes. The first 8 tracks are recorded on tracks 1-8 of cassette 1, and the second 8 tracks on tracks 9-16 of cassette 2

5.C.7. Sound characteristics (films, videos and electronic resources)
Adapted from AACR2 7.5C3
Extracted from ISBD (ER)5.2.2
Adapted from FIAF 5.5.3
For motion pictures, videorecordings or electronic resources, give sd. (sound) or si. (silent) to indicate the presence or absence of sound. Give the precise description of the sound characteristics (e.g. stereo) in a note. 1 videotape reel (15 min) : sd.

Optionally, include the precise description of the sound characteristics in parentheses following the abbreviation sd.

1 videocassette (VHS SECAM , 35 min.) : sd. (stereo)

5.C.8. Colour (films, videos and electronic resources)
From AACR2 7.5C4
ISBD (ER) 5.2.3
For motion pictures, videorecordings and electronic resources, give col. or b&w to indicate whether an item is in colour or black and white. Give b&w for a sepia print (motion pictures and videorecordings). For electronic resources indicate the use of monochrome (e.g. white, green or amber phosphor on a dark background) with b&w. Give a succinct statement to indicate that an item is in a combination of colour and black and white, or alternatively, give this in a note instead. (see 7.B.14.1).

1 videocassette (VHS, 8 min.) : stereo, col.

1 film reel (34 min.) : sd., col. with b&w sequences

1 electronic optical disc (CD-I) : sd., col.

5.C.9. Recording and reproduction characteristics

5.C.9.1. Sound recordings
Expanded from AACR2 6.5C8
Optionally, for sound recordings, indicate known recording and reproduction characteristics (e.g., Dolby processed, NAB standard). Give any details of noise reduction, emphasis , sampling frequency and quantisation (number of bits), bit rate reduction, and file format in a note (see 7.B.14.2). Note that the last three of these relate to digital materials and may also extend to media other than sound recordings.

2 sound cassettes (90 min.) : analogue, stereo, 4 track, Dolby processed, NAB standard
Note: Noise reduction: Dolby B

1 sound tape reel (30 min.) : digital, 38 cm/sec, 36 track, Telcom processed
Note: Noise reduction: Telcom C4

1 sound cassette (DAT, 35 min.) : mono, AES/EBU standard
Note: Sampling frequency and quantisation : 44,1 kHz, 16 bit

1 sound disc (mini disc, 12 min.) : stereo, data reduced
Note: Bit rate reduction: ISO/MPEG , layer 3, 128 kb/sec

5.C.9.2. Motion pictures, videorecordings and electronic resources
From AACR2 7.7B10 a)
Developed from ISBD (ER) 7.5.3
As appropriate for motion pictures, videorecordings and electronic resources, give any special characteristics of the sound component in a note (see 7.B.14.1) rather than in Area 5.

Note: Magnetic sound track

Note: Dolby stereo, mono compatible

5.D. Dimensions

Expanded from AACR2 1.5D2, 6.5D1, 7.5D1

Extracted from ISBD (ER) 5.3.3 Give the dimensions of the item . Prefer metric dimensions, or use imperial dimensions if these are customary for the archive or cataloguing agency. If the item extends over more than one physical unit, and they differ in size, give the smallest or smaller and the largest or larger size, separated by a hyphen. Optionally, if the item is in a container, name the container and give its dimensions after the dimensions of the item .

5.D.1. cylinders

Based on ARSC 6.C.4 Give the dimensions in 0,1 centimetres which differ from the following standard sizes. Give the dimensions in this order: outside diameter, inside diameters at edge and run-off, and length.

5,5 cm

Outside diameter

4,7 cm

Inside diameter at edge*

4,4 cm

Inside diameter at run-off**

10,5-10,8 cm

Length

*Edge is the end of the larger inside diameter

**Run-off is the end of the smaller inside diameter

1 sound cylinder : 160 rpm , microgroove ; 5,5 cm x (4,7-4,4 cm) x 10,6 cm

1 sound cylinder : 160 rpm , coarse groove ; 12,5 cm x (11,2-10,8 cm) x 11,7 cm

5.D.2. Sound discs

Expanded from AACR2 6.5D2 Give the diameter of a disc. Discs may occur in a variety of diameters, however, a list of the more common diameters follow.

8 cm
12 cm
17 cm
20 cm
25 cm
30 cm
41 cm 

1 sound disc (1 side, 3 min., 50 sec.) : stereo, 45 rpm ; 17 cm

1 sound disc (50 min., 35 sec.) : stereo, 33 1/3 rpm ; 30 cm

2 sound discs (metal mothers) : 33 1/3 rpm ; 33 cm

4 sound discs : stereo, 33 1/3 rpm ; 25-30 cm diam. in box 32 x 32 x 2,5 cm

Optionally, omit the diameter, if it is standard for the disc (e.g. 12 cm for a CD).

1 sound disc (CD, 64 min., 17 sec.) : stereo

5.D.3. Sound tape and sound wire reels

Expanded from AACR2 6.5D6 Give the diameter of a sound tape or sound wire reel . Give the width of the sound tape on the reel if other than the standard width (1/4 in. = 0,6 cm).

1 sound tape reel (35 min.) : 9,5 cm/sec, stereo ; 18 cm, 1/2 in. tape

1 sound tape reel (20 min.) : analogue, 38 cm/sec, quadrophonic ; 25 cm, 1/2 in. tape

1 sound tape reel (28 min.) : digital, 19 cm/sec, 24 track ; 20 cm, 2 in. tape

5.D.4. Sound cartridges

Expanded from AACR2 6.5D4

Adapted from ARSC 6.H.6 Give the dimensions of a sound cartridge if other than the standard dimensions (5 1/4 x 3 7/8 in. = 13,3 x 9,8 cm). Give the width of the tape if other than the standard width (1/4 in. = 0,6 cm).

1 sound cartridge : 9,5 cm/sec, mono ; 18,5 x 9 cm, 1 cm tape

5.D.5. Sound cassettes

Expanded from AACR2 6.5D5 Give the dimensions of a sound cassette if other than the standard dimensions (analogue cassette: 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in. = 9,8 x 6,3 cm; DAT: 2 7/8 x 2 1/8 in = 7,2 x 5,4 cm). Give the width of the tape if other than the standard width (analogue cassette and DAT tape: 1/8 in. = 3,2 mm).

1 sound cassette (85 min.) : analogue, mono ; 18,5 x 9 cm, 0,6 cm tape

5.D.6. Videocassettes, videocartridges and videoreels

Adapted from AACR2 7.5D3 Do not give the dimensions of the container, or the diameter of the reel . Instead, give the gauge (width) of the video tape in inches or millimeters. Also give the specific type of video format either in this area (see 5.B.2-5.B.3) or in a note, to assist with selection of the necessary playback equipment.

1 videoreel (30 min.) : sd., b&w ; 1/2 in.

1 videoreel (28 min.) : sd., col. ; 5 cm tape

5.D.7. Videodiscs

AACR2 7.5D4

Give the diameter of a videodisc. 1 videodisc : sd., col. ; 30 cm

5.D.8. Films and sound track films

AACR2 6.5D3, 7.5D2 Give the gauge (width) of a film or a sound track film in millimetres. Examples of gauges follow. If 8 mm, state whether single, standard, super or Maurer

8 mm
15 mm
16 mm
17,5 mm
35 mm
70 mm

5 sound track film reel s (57 min.) : optical ; 17,5 mm

1 film cassette (21 min.) : sd., col. ; standard 8 mm

5.D.9. Electronic resources (local access files)

Extracted from ISBD (ER) 5.3 Give the diameter of the disk/disc or reel ; the length of the face of a chip cartridge; the length and height of a tape cassette when other than the standard size (10 x 7 cm) and the width of the tape when it is other than the standard width (4 mm).

1 electronic disk : col. ; 14 cm

1 electronic tape reel ; 26,7 cm

1 electronic chip cartridge : sd., col. ; 9 cm

1 electronic tape cassette : col. ; 19 x 9 cm, 7 mm tape

5.E. Accompanying material

Adapted from AACR2 1.5E1
See also: 5.F Give details of accompanying material in one of the following ways:

a) make a note (see 7.B.18)

or

b) give the number of physical units in Arabic numerals and the name of the accompanying material at the end of the physical description. Give any additional information regarding the content of the accompanying material in a note.

2 sound discs (CD) + 1 booklet (77 p., [7 p.] : col. ill.)
Note: Booklet contains notes in English, German and Arabic

3 sound discs : 33 1/3 rpm ; 30 cm + 1 booklet (26 p. : col. ill. ; 30 x 30 cm)
Note: Booklet contains notes in English and libretto in Italian and English

2 sound discs (CD) + 1 complete study score (32 p. ; 12 x 12 cm)
or
c) make a separate entry
or
d) make a multilevel description according to the principles described in 9.2-9.2.C.

5.F. Items made up of several types of material

AACR2 1.10

5.F.1. AACR2 1.10A

This rule applies to items that are made up of two or more components, two or more of which belong to distinct material types (e.g. a sound recording and a printed text).

5.F.2. AACR2 1.10B

If an item has one predominant component, describe it in terms of that component and give details of the subsidiary component(s) as accompanying material following the physical description (see 5.E) or in a note (see 7.B.18).

47 slides : col. ; 5 x 5 cm. + 1 sound cassette

3 v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Note: Sound disc (12 min. : analogue, 45 rpm , mono ; 17 cm) in pocket at end of v. 3.

5.F.3. Based on AACR2 1.10C

If an item has no predominant component, apply the following for the physical description of that item.

5.F.4. Based on AACR2 1.10C1

If a general material designation is used (see 1.C.1) for an item without a collective title, give the appropriate designation after each title (see 1.C.5); or, for an item with a collective title, follow the instructions in 1.C.4.

5.F.5. Based on AACR2 1.10C2

Apply whichever of the following three methods as appropriate to the item being described:

a) Give the extent of each part or group of parts belonging to each distinct class of material as the first element of the description (do this if no further physical description of each item is desired). Optionally, if the parts are in a container, name the container and give its dimensions.

12 slides, 1 sound cassette, 1 booklet, 1 map ; in box 16 x 30 x 20 cm

b) Give a separate physical description for each part or group of parts belonging to each distinct class of material (do this if further physical description of each item is desired). Give each physical description on a separate line. Optionally, if the parts are in a container, name the container after the last physical description and give its dimensions.

Hot deserts [kit ] / Ruth Way. - London : Toronto : Visual Publications, [1975?]
1 film strip (39 fr) : col. ; 35 mm
1 sound cassette (ca. 18 min.) : analogue, mono.
4 study prints : col. ; 29 x 88 cm folded to 29 x 44 cm
1 v. (15 p.) ; 22 cm
1 folded sheet (4 p.) : 22 cm
All in container 33 x 47 x 5 cm

c) For items with a large number of heterogeneous materials, give a general term as the extent. Give the number of such pieces unless it cannot be ascertained. Optionally, if the pieces are in a container, name the container and give its dimensions.

various sound cassettes

30 various sound discs (CDs)

42 various pieces ; in box 20 x 12 x 6 cm

6: Series

6.0. Definition and scope

6.0.1. Definition

A series is a group of separate items related to one another by collective features (marks). The items may be intended for use in the sequence they are produced or not, and may be numbered or unnumbered, in production , broadcasting or other forms of publication. Such a group of item s may be a finite series (complete) or an open-ended series (ongoing and therefore incomplete).

6.0.2. Scope

The series statement is used to identify and index items belonging to the same series . It may also be applied to serials incorporating broadcast programs and timeslots (the content of timeslots being related because it is broadcast in the regular timeslot) (see also 1.B.7.2 and 1.B.9.3.1-1.B.9.3.2).

This area is used when all parts of the item are published or broadcast (or are intended to be published or broadcast) in the same series or subseries. In other cases, e.g. where a publisher's series varies from the commonly used series title, the series or subseries statement(s) may be given in a note (see 7.B.19).

When an item belongs to more than one series and/or subseries, the area is repeated. The order of the statements is determined by the order of preference of the sources for the area; in the case of these being of equal value, the order follows the sequence of information found in the chosen source.

Archival series is a different type of series from that defined above. For full guidance on this type of series see the ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description, and Rules for Archival Description.

Note, however, that where material in a named or identified collection is catalogued at the level of the individual item , it is the practice for some audiovisual archives and libraries to record the collection title (and series in collection, if applicable) in this area of the cataloguing record (see 6.J).

6.A. Preliminary rule

6.A.1. Punctuation

Based on ISBD (NBM) Area 6, Punctuation pattern

Precede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ).
Enclose each series statement (see 6.I) in parentheses (()).
Precede each parallel title in a series or sub series by a space, equals sign, space ( = ).
Precede other title information in a series or subseries by a space, colon, space ( : ).
Precede the first statement of responsibility in a series or subseries by a space, slash, space ( / ).
Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility in a series or subseries by a space, semicolon, space ( ; ) unless the statements are considered to form a single phrase.
Precede the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN ) of the series or a sub series by a comma, space (, ).
Precede the numbering within a series or sub series by a space, semicolon, space ( ; ).
Precede the title of a subseries by a full stop, space (. ).
Precede the Dependent title following a section or subseries designation (see 6.H.2) by a comma, space (, ).

6.A.2. Sources of information

Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2 Take information recorded in this area from:

  • the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);
  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying document ation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist's worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);
  • a container that is an original part of the item (e.g. sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from
  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher's or distributor's brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film , tape box for storing audio tape), or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate (see 7.B.3). Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4 Enclose information in square brackets within the parentheses enclosing each series statement only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information is known, or is at least probable. Where this information is uncertain, give a question mark after it.

6.B. Title proper of series

AACR2 1.6B, 6.6B

6.B.1. AACR2 1.6B1

If an item is issued or broadcast in a series , transcribe the title proper of the series as instructed in 1.B.

Area 1: Nils Karlsson Pyssling
(Astrid Lindgren läser själv)

Area 1: Three tenors
(Great voices of the century)

Area 1: Friede auf Erden, op. 13
(Europäische Chormusik aus fünf Jahrhunderten)

Area 1: Die Streichholzschachtel, oder, Ursprünge philosophischen Denkens
(10 Minuten Denken, oder, Philosophie im Alltag)

Area 1: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester, F-Dur, KV 459 (Konzertsaison 1995/96)

Area 1: Introduktion till Windows 95
(Datautbildning på video)

6.B.2. Based on AACR2 1.6B2

If different forms of the title of the series (other than parallel titles) appear, choose the form which predominates or appears to be most consistently used in the sources of information, or the form cited in a scholarly reference work, if there is one available.

6.C. Parallel titles of series

AACR2 1.6C

See also: 6.H.3

6.C.1.AACR2 1.6C1

Follow the instructions in 1.D when transcribing the parallel titles of a series

Area 1: Beredskapsswing
(Svensk jazzhistoria = Swedish jazz)

Area 1: Nuntii latini. 1993-08-09
(Nuntii latini = Latinankieliset uutiset = News in Latin)

Area 1: Le bulletin d'info en français. 1988-05-28
(Le bulletin d'info en français = Nachrichten in französischer Sprache)

Area 1: Nordamerika
(I djurens vilda värld = Really wild animals)

6.D. Other title information of series

AACR2 1.6D

See also: 6.H.3

6.D.1.AACR2 1.6D1

Give other title information of a series only if it provides valuable information identifying the series. Follow the instructions in 1.E when transcribing other title information of a series.

Area 1: Den medeltida balladen
(Musica Sveciae : folk music in Sweden)

Area 1: Philippe Monte
(Reflexe : Stationen europäischer Musik)

Area 1: Velfærdsspioner
(Den nye bølge : om radioteatret i 1960'erne)

Area 1: Isthmus Crypticus
(Æon Flux : animeret cyber-serie fra det 3. millennium)

6.E. Statements of responsibility relating to series

AACR2 1.6E

See also: 6.H.3

6.E.1.AACR2 1.6E1

Transcribe statements of responsibility appearing in conjunction with the series title only if they are considered to be necessary for identification of the series. Follow the instructions in 1.F when transcribing a statement of responsibility relating to a series.

Area 1: Marriage of Figaro
(Historical records / Jack L. Caidin)

Area 1: Thou art so like a flower
(The Columbia history of music by ear and eye / by Percy Scholes)

Area 1: Josef Strauss
(Die goldene Zeit der Wiener Musik = The Golden Age of Viennese Music / Leitung Robert Stolz)

Area 1: Bryggeren : 1864-1867
(Bryggeren : dansk tv-serie / af Kaspar Rostrup)

6.F. ISSN of series

AACR2 1.6F.

See also: 6.H.3

6.F.1. Based on AACR2 1.6F1

Give the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN ) of a series if there is such a number (see also 6.H.4). Precede the ISSN with a comma, space.

(Western Canada series report, ISSN 0317-3127)

6.G. Numbering within series

AACR2 1.6G

See also: 1.B.9.3.1, 6.H.3

6.G.1. Extracted from AACR2 1.6G1

Give the numbering of the item within the series in the terms given in the sources of information.

Area 1: Greatest hits of 1963
(20 years of pop music ; no. 8)

Area 1: Kalaallit Nunaat
(Greenland calling ; vol. 1)

Area 1: Beredskapsswing
(Svensk jazzhistoria = Swedish jazz ; vol. 4)

Area 1: Den medeltida balladen
(Musica Sveciae : folk music in Sweden ; no. 1-2)

Area 1: Livsmod
(Radiodokumentar ; 2:2)

Area 1: Dad and Dave from Snake Gully. Episodes 51-52
(Dad and Dave from Snake Gully ; episodes 51-52)

(Consecutive episodes on each side of a radio disc)

Area 1: ABC News. 1983-10-31. Midday

(ABC News ; 1983-10-31. Midday)

Area 1: Hvem har du med i dag?
(Hej Lasse : fjernsyn for dig ; 9:14)

Area 1: Saps at sea
(The Hal Roach library ; 28)

Area 1: Filosofi
(Calis applikation ; 4)

6.G.2.Developed from AACR2 1.6G2

If the parts of a multipart item are separately numbered within a series , give the first and last numbers separated by a hyphen if the numbering is continuous. Otherwise, give all the numbers, separated by a comma and a space.

Area 1: Elverhøj
(Dansk dramatisk diskotek ; 3-6)

Area 1: Fransk
(Norstedt-Richter's sprogplader ; 2, 3, 5, 6)

6.G.3.AACR2 1.6G3

If the item has a designation other than a number, give the designation as found.

Area 1: Vesterbro - et gennembrud
(Aalborg-bogen ; 1983/84)

Area 1: Dancing in the street. Episode 3
(Dancing in the street ; episode 3)

Area 1: Skippy. Episode 5 : Mayday
(Skippy ; episode 5)

Area 1: Beaumanoir. Episode 26 : Règlement de comptes
(Beaumanoir ; episode 26)

Area 1: Matin Bonheur. 1992-10-12 : [Benjamin Asger]
(Matin Bonheur ; 1992-10-12) (broadcast magazine episode entirely on the topic of Benjamin Asger)

6.H. Subseries

AACR2 1.6H, Glossary

See also: 1.B.9.3.1, 6.A.1 A subseries is a series within a series (i.e. a series that always appears in conjunction with another, usually more comprehensive, series of which it forms a section). Its title may or may not be dependent on the title of the main series.  

6.H.1.Expanded from AACR2 1.6H1

If an item is one of a subseries and both the series and the subseries are named in the sources of information, give the details of the main series (see 6.A-6.G) first and follow them with the name of the subseries and the details of that subseries . Precede the subseries with a full stop and a space.

Area 1: Ungarske folkesange
(Béla Bartók complete edition. Vocal music)

Area 1: Der Gefangene ; Heimatlos ...
(Europäische Chormusik aus fünf Jahrhunderten. Ungarische Chormusik)

Area 1: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester, D-dur, KV 537, "Krönungskonzert"
(Konzertsaison 1995/96. Sonderkonzert ; 2)
(Here the title of the main series is Konzertsaison 1995/96)

Area 1: Die Zeitung
(Der Kurztext in der Morgenmusik. Human touch)

Area 1: The air adventures of Biggles. Episodes 821-822. Desert broom. Episodes 38-39
(The air adventures of Biggles ; episodes 821-822. Desert broom ; episodes 38-39)
(Radio transcription disc with two consecutive episodes of a subseries within a series )

6.H.2.Based on AACR2 1.6H2

See also: 6.A.1 If the subseries has an alphabetic or numeric designation and no title, give the designation.

Area 1: Music for amplified toy pianos
(Works for piano, toy piano & prepared piano. 1944-1960 ; vol. 3)

If such a subseries has a title as well as a designation, give the title after the designation, and precede the title by a comma and a space.

(Viewmaster science series. 4, Physics)

6.H.3.AACR2 1.6H3

Give parallel titles, other title information, and statements of responsibility relating to subseries as instructed in 6.C, 6.D, and 6.E.

6.H.4. Based on AACR2 1.6H4

See also: 6.F Give the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN ) of a subseries if there is such a number. In that case, omit the ISSN of the main series. Precede the ISSN with a comma, space.

(Janua linguarum. Series maior, ISSN 0075-3114)
not
(Janua linguarum, ISSN 0446-4796. Series maior, ISSN 0075-3114)

6.H.5. AACR2 1.6H5

Give the numbering within a subseries as instructed in 6.G.

Area 1: Naga-uta "Urashima"
(Music of the Orient. Japan ; 1-2)

Area 1:Sonater for orgel
(Musica prae classica. Das Orgelwerk ; Folge 5)

Area 1:Josef Strauss
(Die goldene Zeit der Wiener Musik ; III. Die grosse Zeit des Wiener Walzers ; 2)

Area 1: Die Zeitung
(Der Kurztext in der Morgenmusik. Human touch II / Uwe Koschel ; written by Andreas Reikowski ; 5)

6.I. More than one series statement

AACR2 1.6J

6.I.1.AACR2 1.6J1

The information relating to one series , or series and subseries, constitutes one series statement . If an item simultaneously belongs to two or more series and/or two or more series and subseries , give separate series statements and enclose each statement in parentheses. Follow the instructions in 6.A-6.H in recording each series statement

Area 1: Interview med Klaus Lynggaard
(Forfatterportrætter - mennesket bag teksten ; 1) (AV-forfatterportrætter)

Area 1: Nordamerika
(I djurens vilda värld = Really wild animals) (National Geographic - children's video)

Extracted from FIAF 6.9

If parts of an item belong to different series and this relationship cannot be stated clearly in this area, give details of the series in a note (see 7.B.19).

Where a broadcast programme has been transmitted as part of a different series at different times, create a separate catalogue record for each transmission, record the series statement for that transmission, and include a note about the other known transmission(s) (see 7.B.9).

6.J. Optional rule. Collection and series in collection statement

See also: 6.0.2, 9.0.A.3 This area may also include a collection statement, or collection and series in collection statement, in a bibliographic record for items which have been created or collected as a special collection or as a series within a collection. This information may be applicable where unpublished or broadcast items belong to a formed collection or require the application of a collection name. Instances may be where a collection of items is acquired through the results of a field expedition by a researcher, or of an oral history project by a person or institution, or where a broadcast archive, or part thereof, is acquired by a larger audiovisual archive.

(Mike Yates Archive)

(India Office Library and Records interviews. Memories of the British in India)

This technique for collocating items in named or identified collections and series in collection(s) in this area, is a variant method from that usually employed by archives using multilevel, archival fonds or collection level description. For further information about multilevel description , see 9.2, and for full guidance on archival fonds and collection level description refer to the ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description, and Rules for Archival Description.

7: Notes

7.A. Preliminary rule

7.A.1. Punctuation
AACR2 1.7A1

Precede each note by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ) or start a new paragraph for each. Separate introductory wording from the main content of a note by a colon followed but not preceded by a space (: ).

7.A.2. Sources of information
Based on AACR2 1.7A2

Take information recorded in this area from any appropriate source. Use square brackets only for interpolations within quoted material.

7.A.3. Form of notes

7.A.3.1. Order of information
Based on AACR2 1.7A3

If data in a note correspond to data found in Areas 1-6, give the elements of the data in the order in which they appear in those areas. In addition to notes relating to these areas, there may be notes relating to the description of the item which do not correspond to any specific area.

7.A.3.2. Identification of separate parts of contents to which a note refers

If a note only refers to a certain title on the item, provide sufficient information to identify the title in the note (e.g. give the title or the beginning of the title in parentheses after the note).

7.A.3.3. Combining information from different areas of description in a note

Notes relating to different areas of description may be combined when appropriate (see examples in 7.B.9 and 7.B.14.1).

7.A.3.4. Language of notes

The notes are normally entered in the language and/or script of the archive or cataloguing agency. Notes made in other languages may, if desired, be transcribed straight from the item, or other sources of information.

7.A.3.5. Date of creating a note

The notes are accurate at the time the item is catalogued, but not binding for all time. In cases of ambiguity or inaccuracy at the time of the cataloguing, the note should indicate when it was created.

Berlin Symphony Orchestra assumed to be the orchestra, for the purpose of cataloguing prepared on 1997-10-03

7.A.4. Quotations
Based on AACR2 1.7A3

Give quotations from the item or from other sources in quotation marks. Follow the quotation by an indication of its source, as necessary. Do not use prescribed punctuation within quotations.

"The purpose of the anthology, the first documentation on record from The Swedish Rock archives, is to present a survey of early Swedish rock 'n'roll."-Accompanying booklet

7.A.5. Formal and informal notes

7.A.5.1. Formal notes
AACR2 1.7A3

Use formal notes employing an invariable introductory word or phrase or a standard form of words, when uniformity of presentation assists in the recognition of the type of information being presented, or when their use provides economy of space without loss of clarity.

7.A.5.2. Informal notes
AACR2 1.7A3

When making informal notes, use statements that present the information as briefly as clarity, comprehension and grammar permit.

7.A.6. Citing other editions
AACR2 1.7A4

In citing another edition of the same work, give enough information to identify the edition cited.

Reissue of: Caedmon TC1125 (1952)

7.A.7. Citing other works
Based on AACR2 1.7A4

In citing other works and other manifestations of the same work (other than different editions with the same title) always give sufficient information to identify the work being cited.

First published on: Columbia 330SX-7692

Translation of: La maison de Claudine / Colette

Adaptation of: Hamlet / by William Shakespeare

Continues the radio serial : The Lawsons

7.A.8. Notes relating to reproduced material
Based on AACR2 1.7A4

When describing a reproduction , give notes relating to the reproduction and then the notes relating to the original. Combine the notes relating to the original in a note, giving the details in the order of the areas to which they relate.

The tapes are copies made in 1989. - Originally recorded in Kuala Lumpur in 1956

7.B. Notes

AACR2 1.7B1, 6.7B

Make notes as set out in the following subrules and in the order given there. However, give a particular note first when it has been decided that note is of primary importance.

7.B.0. System requirements and/or mode of access
See also: 5.0

7.B.0.1. System requirements (mandatory for local access electronic resources)
Based on ISBD (ER) 7.5.1
See also: 7.B.0.2

Give system requirements that are conditional for use of the item in a note for all local access electronic resources. System requirements are given as the first note. These requirements may include one or more technical specifications, usually given in the following order, preceded by the term System requirements (or its equivalent in another language and/or script) followed by a colon and a space. Precede each characteristic, other than the first, by a semicolon and a space. Optionally, include phrases like or higher, or later.

the name, model and/or number of the computer(s)
the amount of free memory
the name and version of the operating system
the software requirements
peripherals
hardware (internal) modifications

System requirements: Macintosh LC III; 25 MHz 68030; 8 MB RAM; System 7.1; 640x480 256 colours; double-speed multisession CD-ROM

System requirements: Multimedia PC or Compatible PC (MPC) 386 SX; 8 MB RAM; Windows 3.1; VGA 256 colours screen; double-speed CD-ROM drive

System requirements: Macintosh LC III or higher; 8 MB RAM; System 7.1 or later; 14 inches 256 colours screen; double-speed multisession CD-ROM drive

System requirements: PC type 486, 66 MHZ; 8 MB RAM; 1 MB on hard drive; Windows 3.1 or Windows 95; VGA screen with 2 MB video card; double-speed drive CD-ROM

System requirements: Macintosh LC III; 8 MB RAM; 1 MB of disk space; System 7.0; VGA screen with 1 MB video card; CD-ROM drive

System requirements: BinHex 4.0 to convert binary file

System requirements: UNIX workstation with Mosaic software

System requirements: Philips Interactive compact disc (CD-I) player with monitor

When the item consists of two or more different physical carriers (e.g. an interactive multimedia item consisting of an electronic disk and a videodisc), a separate system requirements note may be made to highlight distinctive system features associated with each physical carrier.

System requirements for electronic disk: Macintosh; at least 1 MB; System 6.0.5 or later; HyperCard version 1.0 or later; hard disk drive; RS232 cable connector (from Macintosh to videodisc player)
(Note for physical carrier no. 1)

System requirements for videodisc: Videodisc player (Pioneer 2200, 4200, 6000A, 6010A, 8000)

(Note for physical carrier no. 2)

Alternatively, the archive or cataloguing agency may choose to make a single note for system requirements of both physical carriers.

System requirements: Macintosh; at least 1 MB; System 6.0.5. or later; HyperCard version 1.0 or later; hard disk drive; videodisc player (Pioneer 2200, 4200, 6000A, 6010A, 8000) RS232 cable connector (from Macintosh to videodisc player)
(Single note for different physical carriers: electronic disk and videodisc)

7.B.0.2 Mode of access (mandatory for remote access electronic resources)
Based on ISBD (ER) 7.5.2

Give mode of access in a note for all remote access electronic resources. Give mode of access as a note following the System requirements note (see 7.B.0.1), when applicable, and precede it by the term Mode of access (or its equivalent in another language and/or script) followed by a colon and a space. In the absence of a system requirements note, mode of access is given as the first note.

Mode of access: www.alb.se

Mode of access: World Wide Web. URL: http://www.tunes.com/

Mode of access: Computer university network

7.B.1. Nature, scope or artistic form
Based on AACR2 6.7B1

Make notes on the nature, form, genre, or other intellectual category to which an item belongs, unless it is apparent from the rest of the description.

Opera in two acts

Field recording of bird song

Play for child actors

Excerpts from a live recording of a musical production

Language programme

Radio drama

Television series

Music video

Instrumental dance music

7.B.2. Language
Based on AACR2 6.7B2

Give the language(s) of the spoken or sung content of a recording unless this is apparent from the rest of the description.

Sung in French

In French, introduced in English

In Serbo-Croat

Spoken in French and Occitan
(The speaker mixes both languages )

Songs are sung in Fulani
(Sub-Saharian-African language)

Language: Kaytetye
(Australian Aboriginal language)

7.B.3. Notes on sources of information
Expanded from AACR2 1.7B3
See also: 0.A.1.1, 1.A.2, 1.B.1.6, 1.B.7.1, 1.B.7.10, 2.A.2, 2.B.4, 3.A.2, 6.A.2.

Optionally, give a note on the source of information used when cataloguing, if it is a secondary source of information, if the sources of information are inaccurate, conflicting or ambiguous, or, if the information is supplied by the cataloguer.

Title from accompanying typewritten notes

Title from cue sheet

Title from handwritten notes

Title from script

Title from announcement by programme presenter

Title given by the collector

Title from spoken announcement

Title proper from list made by the donor

Title from viewing

Area 1: [Bride arrives at church, ca 1930s]
Title proper devised following viewing

Title from publisher's catalogue

Title, performers and series from audition. Opening and closing announcements missing. Assumed to be an episode of the radio serial "Dr Paul"

Area 1: Greek salad
The item incorrectly states: Greek sallad

All descriptions of tracks on this recording based on the inventory supplied by David Stewart

The cataloguing is based on the cataloguing made at the Radio archive

The item incorrectly states John Smith as baritone. Accompanying documentation states John Jones as baritone. John Jones confirmed from audition

7.B.4. Variations in title
FIAF 7.2.4

Provide notes which give titles other than those chosen to appear in the title and statement of responsibility area.

Cover title: Bad luck

Variant title: The M-Rock experience

Duplicate with title: Kender du Einar?

Russian title (transliterated)

Also with title in Japanese letters

Repeat broadcast 12 Dec., 1994, with the title: Now and then

Sometimes with the title: Önskesångaren

This song is also known as Yannig Skolan by the collector

Title on label differs from vocal announcements

Swedish release title: Producenterna

Also with the title: Someone is hiding

Spine title: Elvis in Fun in Acapulco

Title on label: Bobby Brize I

Temporary variation in title: The journal

7.B.5. Parallel titles and other title information
AACR2 6.7B5

See also: 1.D.2, 1.D.3, 1.E.3

Give the title in another language and other title information not recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area, if they are considered to be important.

Conventional Swedish title: Figaros bröllop

Original title: Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo

Parallel title: Mad about money

Subtitle on cover: The four seasons variations

Swedish release subtitle: The ultimate experience

The repeat broadcast of part 1 has the subtitle: Trotset mot öknen

7.B.6. Continuation of title

Optionally, complete the transcription of the title proper and/or other title information if it was abridged in the description in Area 1.

Area 1: Le fer et la hache pygmée ...
Title continues: ... et le petit villageois

Area 1: Singende Muse an der Pleisse ...

Title continues: ... in 2 mahl 50 Oden, deren neuesten und besten musicalischen Stücke, mit denen dazugehörigen Melodien

7.B.7. Statements of responsibility
Developed from AACR2 6.7B6, 7.7B6

See also: 1.F.1.1, 7.B.25, 9.1.A.7.1

7.B.7.1. Composer, author, director, etc.

Make a note on a composer, author, director, producer, designer, programmer, etc. who is not given in the statement of responsibility area, and who is considered important. Also make a note on a composer, author, director, etc. already given in the statement of responsibility area if clarification is needed.

Arranger: Bengt Hallberg

Words and music: Cornelis Vreeswijk

Words: Nils Ferlin ; music: Leif Strand

Words and music: Docenterna (unless otherwise stated)

Words: Dan Andersson ; music: see contents note

Director: David Block (unless otherwise stated)

Adapted for radio by Sture Hellgren

The programme series is edited by Seppo Korhonen

All recordings collected and edited by David Stewart for inclusion in the National Film and Sound Archive's collection

Credits: Lil Trulsson, cinematographer ; Harald Hamrell, sound editing ; Madeleine Grive, translation

Credits: Hjalmar Olsson, script and production ; Marcus Edström, illustrations and design ; Ulf Söderberg, music and sound ; Peter Brandström, Henrik Edström programming ; David Isitt, translation into English

As necessary, follow the name with the title of the recording

Recording producers: Thomas Winter (Sinfonia concertante), Michael Petersen (Concerto)

If appropriate, make a note indicating that the name(s) of the composer, author, director, etc., are not available.

Words and music: information unavailable

7.B.7.2. Performers, cast, participants, etc.

Make a note on performers and the medium or role in which they perform, or on cast, participants, etc. if they have not been named in the statements of responsibility area and if they are judged necessary. Also make a note on performers, cast, participants, etc. already given in the statement of responsibility area if clarification is needed, e.g. to specify what instrument a performer is playing.

Ulf Wakenius, Georg Wadenius, guitar

Frances Smith, descant

Maria Callas (Carmen) ; Nicolai Gedda (Don José)

Performer: Fred Åkerström (unless otherwise stated)

Other performers: Göran Lagerberg, bass ; Åke Eriksson, drums

Performers: see names in brackets in contents note

Performer: Janos Solyom ; for other performers: see names in brackets in contents note

Performer: Freskkvartetten

Tomas Bolme (Asterix), narrator ; Beatrice Järås (Honette)

Reader: Kristina Lugn

Janne Schaffer, Rune Gustafsson, guitars ; Björn J:son Lindh, keyboard ; Christian Veltman, bass ; Per Lindvall, drums

Cast: Richard Gere, Julia Roberts

Derek G. Holroyde, commentator

Luciano Pavarotti, tenor ; Ingvar Wixell, baritone ; Edita Gruberova, soprano

Anita Jansson, narrator in sign-language

Swedish voices: see names in brackets in contents note

Participants: Bengt Grafström, programme leader ; Gösta Ekman, actor ; Hasse Gustafsson, reporter

Performers: Gerd Andersson, dancer ; Erik Saedén, singer ; Radiosymfonikerna ; Thomas Schuback, conductor

With the co-operative participation of the local people, the musicians and the interpreters in Kuwde, North-Togo

Participants: Martin Berggren, Lena Nydahl, narrators ; David Isitt, Mavis von Proschwitz, narrators in English

Where the name of a corporate body is given here, optionally include the names of individuals and their instruments or voices if clarification is necessary (e.g. if it is appropriate to highlight the names of individual performers; if members of an ensemble are not always the same persons; if the ensemble has a non-distinctive name based on the name of the leader). This is usually applied to classical music or jazz ensembles, but may be applied in any situation where it is considered useful.

Freskkvartetten (Lars Fresk, Curt Appelgren, violins ; Lars-Gunnar Bodin, viola ; Per-Göran Skytt, violoncello)

The Jones Boys (Thad Jones, trumpet ; Jimmy Jones, piano ; Eddie Jones, bass ; Jo Jones, drums) joined in the final riffs by Reunald Jones, trumpet and Quincy Jones, fluegelhorn

Sometimes it is not possible to determine the actual names of performers. In these cases give the best information available.

Performances by members of the Djapu, Enindilyagawa, Garadjari, Nunggubyu, Walbiri, Wik-ngatara, Worora, and Wunambul language groups

Performers: various named and unnamed native vocalists and instrumentalists

Songs and instrumental music performed by various groups (Azande, Babinga, Dakpa, Linda and Ndokpa)

7.B.7.3. Other names and information about names

Make notes relating to any other persons or bodies connected with a work that are not named in the statements of responsibility.

Engineered by Ralph Ortner at National Recording Studios, Canberra ; original art work on sleeve by Kate Scott

Recorded by Cathy Bromley

For unpublished sound recording items, such as oral histories, ethnographic field recordings, etc., more detailed description may be given here when necessary and/or available, about participants, informants or contributors, etc. Such information may include place of residence of the informant and/or singer, age (if available) and profession.

Jessica Manning, aged 78, midwife in Seattle during The Depression

Frank Higgins, head of the Department of Music at Burwood College, Melbourne

Wilfrid Thomas, BBC broadcaster

If considered necessary, give information extending beyond identifying a person or corporate body, and their role or function in the recording in an appropriate note such as the summary (see 7.B.24) or as an other note (see 7.B.34).

7.B.8. Attribution and conjectures
Extrapolated from AACR2 1.7A3, References

Make notes on persons or organisations to whom the recording being described has been attributed, and cite the sources if appropriate.

Bill Smith assumed as singer. From audition

Composition attributed to Jim White. From correspondence<

7.B.9. Edition, issue and history
Developed from AACR2 6.7B7

See also: 2.B.3, 6.I.1, 7.A.3.3

Make notes relating to the edition or issue being described, to the edition or issue of the work being performed, or to the history of the recording. Do not give a title of an original work here, if it is identical with one given in Area 1. Name the type of work instead. Where the edition statement (see 2.B) indicates a reissue, re-publication or a particular adaptation, etc., give sufficient information here to identify the original.

Based on the comic book by René Goscinny

Previously issued: 1985

Previously issued: 1985-1986

Previously unissued material

Partly previously unissued material

Previously issued: 1967 (Baby love), 1969 (I long for you)

Reissue of: Caedmon TC 1125 (1952)

Reissue of : Armen-Dastum SCM 013

Recorded in Vienna in 1961. Previously released as Westminster WST 17035
(Example of a combination note)

Previously broadcast in the series The great philosophers

Music from the motion picture: Änglagård

Music from the TV-series: Nilecity 105,6

Music from the film : Mød mig på Cassiopeia

Based on the novel by Ernest Hemingway

Based on: The millstone / Margaret Drabble

Short version of work originally released in 1965

Edition statement: Short version
Short version of Tendens. Original version broadcast 1988-06-05

The programme was never broadcast

7.B.10. Material of recording
See also: 10.B.7.1

As appropriate, provide information about the recording process itself, the original recording, or characteristics of the recording equipment including the type of tape recorder, microphones and sound tape designation. Normally this applies to unpublished material, but occasionally also to published material.

Recorded with AIWA cassette recorder and Telinga microphones (stereo microphone parabolic reflector combination)

Recorded with Beyer dynamic mics into Nagra IV recorder and onto Zonal 575 tape

7.B.11. Place, date and circumstance of recording
Developed and expanded from AACR2 6.7B7
See also: 1.B.7.8, 9.1.A.7.3

Give available details of the place and date of recording. Include appropriate contextual information about the recording event in special circumstances. As preferred by the archive or cataloguing agency, present date information in a standard format of YYYY-MM-DD, or as text. Optionally, give the name of the recordist here.

Alternative rule. For recordings which are neither published nor broadcast, give the date of recording (creation) in Area 3 (see 3.H.1-3.H.3).

Recorded: 1956-11-15

Date recorded 1990-07-04

Recorded on April 4, 1958

Recorded: 1955-1987

Originally recorded between 1959 and 1969 in Australia at Aurukun, Darwin, Delissaville, Derby, Groote Eylandt, La Grange and Yuendumu

Recording of concert in Royal Albert Hall (London), June 7, 1976

Recorded New York City, 1928-06-21

Recorded in Stockholm 1998-04-07 by Jens Lindgren
(Example of a combination note)

Recording of speech given at Uppsala University, 1988-05-12

Recording of speech given at Sergels torg, Stockholm, Oct 7, 1968, interrupted by demonstration

Recorded during world premiere performances 10-12, 17-19 Nov. 1988 at the Queanbeyan Bicentennial Hall

Recorded at the Edinburgh International Festival

Recorded during Holy Week celebration

Recorded during the seasonal festival

Recorded at the dedication of a new encampment

Include a statement to indicate that the recording is live or a live relay.

Live recording at Wembley Arena

Live relay from the opening ceremony of the Atlanta Games

Optionally, for field, wildlife, ethnographic or laboratory recordings, also record the details of the location (e.g. village, market, laboratory, home, farm, homestead) or environment or habitat (e.g. forest, tropical region, grasslands, sea-coast, shrubland and waste, flowing freshwater).

Place recorded: sea-coast coastal lagoon

Recorded by David Stewart 4 km. South West of Quilpie, Qld. on 4 July 1990
(Example of a combination note)

Recorded in the home of interviewee

Recorded in the village of Rahoúla (Greece), 1979-01-06

Optionally, for wildlife recordings, also include grid details of longitude and latitude. Enter geographical coordinates as numbers. Enter altitudes in metres.

Latitude 41 [degrees] 30'N; Longitude 120 [degrees] 30'E; Altitude c 600m

Optionally, for wildlife recordings enter a statement about the habitat based on a reputable topographical reference work.

Forests - Temperate - Coniferous mesophytic
Optionally, for wildlife recordings, give also additional information pertinent to the particular recording such as the season or occasion, specific time or part of the day or night, and temperature (see also 7.B.24).

Recorded during the dry season

Recorded at twilight at the Old North Bridge Concord (Mass.) 1968-06-29

Recording time 4 a.m.

Recorded: 1982-03-27 at 06:21

Recorded: 1978-07-14, 20:00-22:00

Alternatively, include place, date and/or circumstance of the recording in the summary (see 7.B.24).

If fundamental information is not available or does not exist, provide an estimate of recording details if feasible, or, if appropriate, acknowledge that the information is missing.

Recorded 1950s?

Recording details unknown

7.B.12. Publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc.
AACR2 6.7B9

See also: 1.B.11, 3.B.1.3, 3.B.2.1,

Make notes on publication, distribution, production, broadcast etc., details that are not included in the publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc. area and that are considered to be important.

Licensed from Cooking Vinyl, p 1992

Promotional CD

Demo cassette

Original production : 1967 ; digitally remaster ed: 1994

Distributed in Australia by CBS

Live broadcast

Repeat broadcast. First broadcast Sept. 4, 1990, 10.00-10.30

From the Danish Radio

From the BBC Transcription Service

Area 3: Melbourne : Dahlmont
Also published on the Vocalion label in England. A sticker label for Dahlmont in Melbourne covers the Vocalion label

Indicate if the recording is a simultaneous broadcast (or simulcast) in a note, and include details of the corresponding transmission by the broadcasting partner (see also 1.B.11).

With simultaneous radio broadcast on BBC Radio 3

Simultaneous broadcast with Sveriges television TV1

7.B.13. Copyright
FIAF 7.2.9

See also: 4.D, 4.C

Provide notes to clarify information found in copyright notices or to indicate the sources of information, other than the item itself or the published records of the copyright agency.

7.B.14. Physical description

7.B.14.1. General rule
Based on AACR2 6.7B10

See also: 5.0, 5.B.4.2, 5.C.8, 5.C.9.2, 7.A.3.3, 10.B.5, 10.B.7.1, 10.B.7.2, 10.B.7.4, 9.1.A.5.2

Make notes on important physical details that are not included in the physical description area, especially if these affect the use of the item . Do not give notes on physical details that are standard to the item being described.

Recorded on one side only

Same recording on both sides

Picture disc

Red vinyl

Flexi disc

Flexi disc, recorded on both sides

Test pressing

In 2 containers

Acoustic recording

Impressed on rectangular surface 20 X 20 cm

Vertically cut from inside outward

Vertically cut from centre to edge

Inside start

Shape(d) disc

Recorded on Tandberg TDC, 112 kbit/sec/channel
(Example of a combination note)

Programme of 20 min. which is repeated several times

Sequence of 4 min. which is repeated several times

Video has stereo sound
(Music video)

Colour with introduction in b&w
(Music video)

Magnetic sound track
(Motion picture)

Dolby stereo, mono compatible
(Motion picture)

Based on AACR2 6.7B10, last para

If it is not given in Area 5, give the duration of each part contained in an item without a collective title and described as a unit (see 1.G; see also 5.B.4.2 and 7.B.25).

Durations: 84 min. ; 95 min.

Where (parts of) the content is missing from the recording, indicate this in a note.

Some of the tapes have been erased. Only five minutes of excerpts remain

Lacks third reel

Lacks last 15 min. of recording

Beginning and end of the opera is missing

Newsflash recorded over first three minutes of speech

Final ten minutes of programme lost due to overrun of previous news bulletin

7.B.14.2. Recording and reproduction characteristics
See also: 5.C.9.1

Optionally, give the following details, as appropriate, in the order set out here:

Noise reduction
Sampling frequency and quantisation
Bit rate reduction
Format of file

7.B.14.2.1. Noise reduction

Optionally, give the noise reduction characteristics. Precede this information with the term noise reduction and a colon. Some of the commonly applied noise reduction standards are:

Dolby A
Dolby B
Dolby C
Dolby S
Dolby SR
dbx
Telcom C4 (514 nWb/m)
Telcom C4 (320 nWb/m)

Noise reduction: Dolby B
Noise reduction: Telcom C4 (320 nWb/m)

Optionally, give emphasis for linear audio files in a note. The predominant types of encoded audio signal emphasis are, according to IEC Standard:

a) Emphasis not indicated. Receiver default to no emphasis with manual override enabled.

b) No emphasis , receiver manual override disabled.
(This is the equivalent of ARD standard)

c) 50/15 ms emphasis . Receiver manual override disabled.
(Here the frequency is defined as a time constant.)

d) CCITT J.17 emphasis (with 6,5 dB insertion loss at 800 Hz). Receiver manual override disabled.
(Here the frequency is defined as a Hertz.)

Area 5: starts at 3 min., 17 sec. on 1 sound cassette (DAT, 4 min., 12 sec.) : stereo

50/15 ms emphasis

7.B.14.2.2. Sampling frequency and quantisation

Optionally, give the technical data of a linear audio file in the following order: sampling frequency and quantisation (number of bits). Precede this information with the term sampling frequency and quantisation and a colon. Some commonly applied sampling frequencies and quantisations are:

48 kHz, 16 bit

44,1 kHz, 16 bit

Area 5: 43 m 35 s - 1 h 19 m 45 s on 1 cassette (DAT, 36 min., 10 sec.)

Sampling frequency and quantisation : 48 kHz, 16 bit

7.B.14.2.3. Bit rate reduction

Optionally, give the data of a bit rate reduced audio file in the following order: format of reduction, process of reduction and data rate. Precede this information with the term bit rate reduction and a colon. Examples of some commonly applied bit rate reductions are:

ISO/MPEG , layer 1, 384 kb/sec
ISO/MPEG , layer 2, 384 kb/sec
ISO/MPEG , layer 2, 256 kb/sec
ISO/MPEG , layer 2, 196 kb/sec
ISO/MPEG , layer 3, 128 kb/sec

Note that the standard ISO/MPEG also has different levels (MPEG -1, MPEG -2, MPEG -3). Give the precise information if necessary.

Bit rate reduction: ISO/MPEG -1, layer 2

Area 5: on 1 electronic disk (diskette, 1.44 MB, 4 min) : stereo, data reduced

Bit rate reduction: ISO/MPEG 1, layer 2

7.B.14.2.4. Format of file

Optionally, for audio files, give the type of file which describes the format of the recording. Precede the file type format with the term File type and a colon. Some of the file types in use are:

Broadcast Interchange Format
Broadcast Wave Format
Synthesizer File Format - Commodore/AMIGA
Musicam (for data reduced files)
Open Media Framework
Sound-Apple Macintosh
Wave

File type: Wave

File type: Musicam

7.B.15. Physical condition
See also: 10.B.7.4.

Make notes on physical condition of the item being described (including any containers and/or labels), if that condition materially affects the clarity of playback of the content, or legibility of written information on the label(s) or container(s). This information may vary between different copies of the same recording. A list of suggested terms to assist in the description of the physical condition of discs, cylinders and magnetic tapes and wire recordings is at Appendix C.

Fungus growth on grooves

Emulsion flecking

Records heavily pitted

Several tracks scratched through by recording operator

archive's copy scratched but playable

Temporary dropouts on this copy

Label is illegible

7.B.16. Quality of the recording
See also: 10.B.7.4.

Here any significant details about the quality of the recording are noted, e.g. background noise, dropouts. Describe any background sounds that may be obtrusive or of added interest. Where background or playback noise (e.g. on a field tape recording) cannot be filtered out this note may relate to all copies held.

Background noise due to this being recorded in a hall adjacent to a practice room which was being used by a rock band for rehearsal

Other species heard in background include cuckoo and nuthatch

Insects, wind noise, and conversations are audible in the background

Pitch and tempo of recording varies due to original recorder's weak batteries at the time the original recording was made

Phone interview

Recorded with a constant audible hum

Pre-echo due to print-through

Temporary picture disturbances

Temporary dropout

Optionally, determine and give a value judgment on the sound quality of the recording being described

Sound quality is excellent (or good, fair, poor - as appropriate)

Broadcast quality

Depending on the results of restorative work (e.g. electronic editing, declicking or preparation of a preservation tape copy of a scratched original disc), or if multiple copies of a published recording are held, this note may vary between different copies of the same recording

7.B.17. Conservation / preservation
See also: 10.B.7.3, 10.B.7.4.

Make a note if the physical item being described has received any specific conservation or preservation treatment. This information may vary between different copies of the same recording.

Tape dubbing made (35-59, 93-118 only)

Tape respooled: 1996-05-11

disc washed in ultrasonic bath: 1989-10-06

Lacquer sprayed to 'bare' areas of disc: 1994-02-06. Grooves carved into new lacquer; and dub to preservation tape made:

1994-02-07
(Treatment to make a preservation copy of remaining sections of a lacquer disc where part of the original recorded surface has flaked off and been lost.)

Lacquer flakes 'cemented' to disc: 1997-04-16. Dub to preservation tape made: 1997-04-17

(Reconstruction and copying treatment to preserve content of a lacquer disc , where parts of the original recorded surface have flaked off but were retained with the disc until it could be treated.)

Tape reels transferred from original acetate discs

Preservation, dubbing master , working duplicate and access copies made

(Example of a combined note on preservation treatment (copy made) and an available access copy)

7.B.18. Accompanying material
Based on AACR2 6.7B11

See also: 5.E, 5.F

Make notes on the existence and type of accompanying material, lyrics, commentary and language (see also 5.E).

Lyrics on cover

Lyrics on inner sleeve

Libretto in booklet

Lyrics in booklet

Lyrics in French and English on cover

Lyrics on sheet

Text and notes on sheet

Libretto and notes in Swedish and Italian in booklet

Notes in booklet

Notes in German, English and Arabic in booklet

Lyrics and notes in English, French and Swedish in booklet

With record company catalogue of selected releases

Notes on handwritten sheet held

Typed cue sheet held by archive

Programme script held by archive

Transcript held in documentation library

Typed summary held in documentation library

Filed with the transcript are 6 photographs

Supplementary materials: chronology of events, a map showing the location of the recorded performance

Handwritten musical notation of the beginning of each item by collector is included

Handwritten field notes included in container

Still photographs held by archive

Slides included in container

Maps held by archive

Manuscripts held by the documentation Library

Text of the song in Breton, translation in French

With teacher's guide

With student booklet in English

With student material in German (6 booklets and teacher's guide)

With learner's diskette

Données vidéographiques, iconographiques et sonores

Contient une analyse scientifique des oeuvres

Accompanying material to Sound Affects, no. 5 (1995)

Published with the book: Vild med heste / af Jette S. Gram

7.B.19. Series
Based on AACR2 6.7B12

See also: 6.0.2, 6.I.1

Optionally, make notes on series data that are not given in the series area (e.g. publisher's series which varies from the commonly used seriestitle; series in which the work was previously issued).

Originally issued in the series : Klassiker för barn

Publisher's series on container: Ethnic Folkways Records
(Container bears variant form of publisher's series )

Originally broadcast in the series : Soul corner

broadcast as part of the Fairest Isle season

Originally issued in the series : Disney classics

7.B.20. Dissertation
AACR2 2.7B13, 6.7B13

If the item being described is a dissertation or thesis presented as part of the requirements for an academic degree, give either the term Thesis or Diss. followed by a brief statement of the degree for which the author was a candidate (e.g. (M.A.) or (Ph.D.), or, for thesis to which conventional abbreviations do not apply, (doctoral) (master 's)), the name of the institution or faculty to which the thesis was presented, and the year in which the degree was granted.

Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Toronto, 1974

Thesis (M.A.)-University College, London, 1969

Thesis (doctoral)-Freie Universität, Berlin, 1973

7.B.21. Audience
AACR2 6.7B14

Make a note of the intended audience for an item if this information is stated in the item , its container or accompanying textual material.

Intended audience: First-year undergraduates

Intended audience: G.C.E. "A" level students

Intended audience: Children

Intended audience: Youth

Intended audience: Immigrants

Intended audience: Elderly

Intended audience: Elementary grades

For children aged 7 to 10

7.B.22. References to existing descriptions

ACR2 1.7B15

Optionally, give a brief bibliographic citation for works which describe or contain references to the material being catalogued.

Reference: Discography of the recorded insects sounds / D.C.F. Rentz and J. Balderson. - Canberra : CSIRO, 1989. - (CSIRO Division of Entomology report ; no. 44). - p.27

Reference: Australian jazz on record, 1926-1980 / Jack Mitchell. - Canberra : NFSA, 1988. - p.79

Reference: Vogue Productions discography : the Vogue sessions, 1945-1958 / Michel Ruppli. - Paris : AFAS, 1992. - p.35

Part of collection described in collector's Thesis (Ph.D.)-UCLA: The classical tassnif : a genre of Persian vocal music. - 1983

7.B.23. Other formats
Based on AACR2 6.7B16

Give the details of other formatc etc. in which the content of the item has been issued. Give the year of publication if it differs from the item being described. For describing the archive's holdings of the same content on another format, see 7.B.30.

Issued also as CD: ELAP 4624

Issued also as mini disc: 1111-MD

Issued also as DCC: 1111-DCC

Issued also as gramophone record: 1212-LP , and music cassette: 1212-MC

Issued also with the phonogram number: 1212-CD

Issued also as a promotional CD: PCD 12

Issued also by EMI: EMI 2233556

Issued also as laser disc

Issued also as laser disc , 1989

7.B.24. Summary
Expanded from AACR2 6.7B17
See also: 1.B.7.8, 7.B.7.3, 7.B.7.3, 9.1.A.5.2

Give a brief objective summary of the content of an item unless another part of the description provides enough information. Begin the note with the term Summary (or its equivalent in another language and/or script) followed by a colon and a space. If the item consists of more than one title, more than one summary can be given.

Summary: Set of jazz improvisations inspired by folk traditions

Summary: information on Stockholm

Summary: information on IFK Göteborg, with music

Summary: Review of the collection of short stories Neighbors by the American author Raymond Carver

Summary: Interview with the former Hong Kong correspondent Hans Granquist. Topics include early career, the years in Hong Kong and the homecoming

Summary: Talking about Australia and New Zealand. The language tour of the YLE Radio and Television come to Australia and New Zealand to find out what kind of people the Australians are. In the programme Australians themselves from different parts of the country are asked this question

Summary: Lesley Taylor, b. 1913, speaks about his life as an opal miner and buyer

Summary: Bill Flannagan, b. 1914, speaks about his involvement with BBC in his early days, and now with the "Over 60s radio" at 5UV, Adelaide, Australia

Summary: A.B. Neilsen talks about his career as an exhibitor of films in his theaters; the developments of sound on film and popular early films such as "The jazz singer", "The sentimental bloke", and "On our selection"; the dangers of fire from nitrate film and other issues dealing with theaters

Summary: Interviewed shortly before her sudden death, major British artist Helen Chadwick outlines her background, education and working methods. She discusses the motifs and ideas which became her trademark through a series of exhibitions in the UK and abroad such as "Effluvia" at the Serpentine gallery in London in 1994; and through publications such as "Enfleshings" (1989)

Title: Cuckoo/Station House Opera

Summary: To the music of bowed cellos and sawn wardrobes, the company nail each other to the furniture and elevate the floor, proving that nothing is stable other than instability

Title: Pan "A" minor : steelbands of Trinidad

Summary: On the Island of Trinidad, the arrival of the first biscuit tins and kerosene pans led to the invention of a unique style of music, the steelband

Title: Bourrées d'Aubrac

Summary: The bourrée is a French regional folk dance. Here we see about ten of them, danced to the accordion or local bagpipes and hear one song bourrée. Recorded in four villages of Aubrac

Optionally, include the tape counter numbers, or start time position on the item to indicate the beginning of different sections of a lengthy recording. Optionally, conclude the summary with the total duration.

Optionally, give a brief summary or precis followed by a detailed summary if required.

Brief summary: Lady Squire is interviewed about her life in India, Persia and Afghanistan, as the wife of Sir Giles Squire of the Indian Political Services

Interview summary: Family and educational background; securing of a teaching job in India at Hyderabad school; teaching in Hyderabad (Deccan), life at the school, subjects and contacts with the pupils, teachers' living conditions and life outside the school; vacation in Kashmir; marriage to Sir Giles Squire; Lady Squire's health in India, general levels of health; Indore, character of station; character of political service work; memories of a shoot; experiences stationed in Kathiawar; her children and their education; the servants, their quality and work organizing of shopping and supplies in Kabul; Indian friends, welfare and voluntary work, particularly the leprosy unit in Mehed; her opinion of the Indian independence movement; anti-British outburst of a doctor friend; unable to accept presents from Indians; her contact with Moral Rearmament movement; Mehed, modernizing efforts of Shah, inco-operative attitude of people to British; strength of Islam in Kabul; memories of the Quetta Earthquake and its aftermath; highlights of Lady Squire's time in the East, camel excursion in Baluchistan; feeling of safety in India; unpleasant incidents with Congress supporters during Quit India movement; her interest in the sights of India; prohibition of entry into mosques in Meshed, though not in Kabul

Optionally, for wildlife recordings include information in the summary concerning whether the individual is male, female, adult, juvenile or adolescent and what it is doing (e.g. flying, feeding young); and whether it is wild or in captivity. Also temperature and existence of wind or other environment sound) may be included here (see also 7.B.11).

Summary: Adult female mudlark calls as she feeds chicks. The recording is the third of this group made in Namadgi National Park (A.C.T.), on 1989-11-17 at 17:02 hours. Compared with earlier takes, the wind has dropped and cannot be heard on this recording. Temperature at the time of recording is 17 deg. C. (Duration: 25 sec.)

7.B.25. Contents
Expanded from AACR2 6.7B18

See also:1.B.10, 1.G.5, 5.B.4.2, 7.B.14.1

List the titles of individual works contained in, or the parts of, a recording. Give alternative titles in brackets immediately after the title proper. Separate each item in the contents note with a space, double dash, space.

Add to each title any statements of responsibility not included in Area 1 and/or 7.B.7 and which are considered necessary. Where composers, etc, and performers are both given in the contents note, it is recommended that the composers be given first, followed by the performers. The performers are always given in brackets.

Optionally, include the duration (if it is available), or include tape counter numbers, or start time position on the recording.

Optionally, give uniform titles for classical music here.

Optionally, if composer, author, director, etc., has already been given in Area 1 and/or 7.B.7, give only variant composers, authors, directors, etc., here.

Contents: The golden age of rock 'n' roll -- Born late 58 -- Trudi's song -- Pearl 'n' Roy -- Roll away the stone -- Marionette -- Alice

Contents: Dog days (City morgue blues) -- Stranger in paradise

Contents: Dancing queen / B. Andersson, S. Anderson, B. Ulvaeus -- Lay all your love on me / B. Andersson, B. Ulvaeus

Contents: Big bad wolf / C. Högberg (Jerry Williams) -- If I only knew / S. Banks (Lone Rangers)

Contents: D'ya like scratchin'? : special version -- She's looking like a hobo -- Buffalo gals : DJ cut - special stereo -- World's famous (radio I.D.) -- Hobo scratch -- Would ya like more scratchin'? : New York City remix

Area 1: Chamber music / Benjamin Britten
Contents: Fanfare for St. Edmondsbury / (Bo Nilsson, Jan-Olov Hjelm, Rolf Tilly, trumpets) -- Suite, violoncello, no. 1, op.72 / (Frans Helmerson)

Contents: Louise. Depuis le jour / G. Charpentier (Mary Garden, soprano, with orchestra) -- Tosca. Vissi d'arte / Puccini (Maria Jeritza, soprano, with piano)

Contents: The history of democracy (7 min.) -- Democracy in the future (13 min.) -- Democracy here and now (23 min.)

Contents: Cadenza / improvisation (Manfred Schoof Sextett) -- Gewisse kristallinische Gebilde / improvisation (Manfred Schoof Sextett) -- Virtue / improvisation (Manfred Schoof Sextett)
(Recording of collective improvisations performed by Manfred Schoof Sextett)

Innehåll: Romskij cocek / trad., arr. D. Lundberg -- Goce's dance / trad., arr. H. Hurtig, D. Lundberg -- Cigansko skopsko oro / trad., arr. O. Ronström -- Mahala / trad., arr. O. Ronström, H. Hurtig -- Razijin cocek / trad., arr. D. Lundberg

Contents: Tis pretty to be in Ballinderry / trad. -- Captain Coulson / trad. -- Ta Me'Mo Shui / trad. -- What brought the blood / trad. -- The blighted lover / trad. -- The twisting of the rope / trad. -- The blackbird / trad. -- Old Ardboe / trad. -- The old man rocking the cradle / trad. -- Siubhan Ni Dhuibhir / trad. -- Dobbin's flowery vale / trad. -- Going to Mass last Sunday / trad.

Innehåll: Livgardets dragoners marsch (Dragonerna komma) / A. Ericson -- Björneborgarnas marsch / anon. -- Svea banér / J.C.F. Haeffner -- Herzog von Braunschweig / anon. -- Kungliga gardets marsch / anon. -- Der Dessauer / anon. -- Stabstrumpetaren / S. Rydqvist -- Stridskola Nords marsch = Der Coburger / anon.

Innehåll: 1. Pianosonat nr 30, E-dur / Ludwig van Beethoven -- 2. Introduktion och allegro för stråkkvartett och stråkorkester / Edward Elgar -- 3. Symfoni nr 29, A-dur / Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Innehåll: Pojken och den lilla fågelungen = The song of the birds (1935) / directed by Dave Fleischer --Hurra för våren = To spring (194-?) / directed by Hugh Harman, Rudolf Ising

Contents: Split personality / directed by Joel Silver (Joe Pesci, Jacqueline Alexandra) -- People who live in brass hearses / directed by Russell Mulcahy (Bill Paxton, Brad Dourif, Michael Lerner) -- Dead wait / directed by Tobe Hooper (Whoopi Goldberg, James Remar)

Optionally, for medleys, give the title of the medley first (or if there is no title, the term Medley) followed by a colon and a space, and then the parts of the medley. Separate the parts by a space, semicolon, space.

Contents: King Creole / J. Leiber, M. Stoller -- Let's medley: Let's twist again / K. Mann, D. Appell ; C'mon let's go / R. Valens ; Let's have a party / J.M. Robinson ; Let's dance / J. Lee -- Jeannie = Jeannie's coming back / T. Norell, Oson, A. Bard, K. Almgren

For ethnomusicological recordings, include voice type (e.g. male, female, men women, adult(s), child(ren), and whether soloist, choir, group), and description of instrument.

Contents: Praise song for hunters / for male soloist and a small men's choir (3 min., 50 sec.) -- Funeral lament / woman's voice (2 min., 03 sec.) -- Song for grinding karite nuts / Two female voices, a mortar and two pestles (2 min., 23 sec.) -- Dinaba, origin myth / A male soloist and a men's choir; two calabash, rattles & four pair of metal castanets (12 min.)

Contents: Side 1: 1-3. Rain dreaming ceremony : 3 excerpts -- 4. A re-singing of the Rain dreaming songs after the ceremony -- 5. Rain-making song -- 6. Balgan songs -- 7. Djabi song : the Windmill of Wallanie Plains -- Side 2: 1. Wongga dance song series : selected items -- 2. Brolga bird plan songs -- 3. Women's wu-ungka songs -- 4. Morning star, Pigeon, and Rain songs -- 5. Stingray, Dolphin, Curlew, and Shark songs

Title: [Cantal-St Urcize]
Contents: (00) Biographical information on the musician -- (3:52) How to learn and play the cabrette (local bagpipe) -- (6:32) En passant par le bois (Regret) (category of song) / cabrette (local bagpipe) -- (9:12) Bourrée avec picotage "La Mouraillado" / cabrette (local bagpipe) -- (11:55) Les garçons de la montagne : bourrée (traditional dance) / cabrette (local bagpipe)
(Here start time positions on the tape precede the entry for each recorded item).

Alternatively, provide a partial contents to highlight items of particular interest

Partial contents: Complainte pour Ste-Catherine -- Tell my sister -- Swimming song -- Jigsaw puzzle of life

Includes performances by Charlie Mingus: Stormy weather -- Abstractions

Optionally, if the recording contains many short works, make a summary of the contents.

Contains 37 children songs

Contains 42 songs from Dalecarlia

Contains folk music from Finland

Contains another 15 films

7.B.26. Numbers
Based on ISBD (NBM) Area 8
Varied from AACR2 6.7B19

All numbers should be given in Area 8, or its equivalent in Chapter 10.

7.B.27. "With" notes
Based on AACR2 6.7B21

If the title and statement of responsibility area contains a title that applies to only a part of an item lacking a collective title, and, therefore, more than one description is made, make a note beginning With: and listing the other separately titled works in the item in the order in which they appear there.

With: The Truman story

With: Frilly follies -- The shy mouse -- The night hawk

7.B.28. Copy being described
Based on AACR2 1.7B20, 6.7B20

See also: 10.B.7.2, 10.B.7.4

Give important descriptive details of the particular copy being described. This information may vary between different copies of the same recording (see also Chapter 10).

Label autographed by performer

7.B.29. Restrictions and terms governing use
Based on AACR2 1.7B20, 6.7B20
Developed from FIAF 7.2.22, 7.2.23

See also: 10.B.4.2

Restrictions on any access to or use of material may apply to the content of a recording regardless of the number of copies held (e.g. original recording and preservation copy); while a published recording will have restrictions until, through age, its status becomes public domain.

Give information regarding any restrictions on or rights to access and use (copying, broadcasting, publishing) the materials (or any portion thereof) if not apparent from publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc., details, or information about copyright on the item .

Only to be used in the library

Permission of the collector is required for copying, broadcast or re-publication

Permission of the institution is required for copying, broadcast or re-publication

Permission of the depositor is required for access to material

Permission of the repository is required to cite, quote, or reproduce

Restricted to use by graduate students only

No access to the material is allowed without prior clearance from the depositor

This tape contains ceremonial chants. Access is only available to members of the [name] tribe

Access allowed

If there is a time limit on the restriction on access, the date when it will become available for access is entered here.

Cannot be consulted until 1999

No access to this material is allowed until 2005

Accessible after 2010

Embargo on all access until 20 years after the death of the source

Optionally, commence this note with the term Restrictions followed by a colon and a space.

7.B.30. Availability
See also: 7.B.23

If all or part of the material being described is available (either in the institution or elsewhere) in another format, make a note to indicate this. If only part of the physical item being described is available in another format, indicate which part.

Reference copies available

Access copies available for research use at the Département de la Musique et de la Parole, Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires

Available as a cassette reference copy (C 3618)

Digital recording of repeat broadcast Oct. 5, 1994, 10.00-10.30 is available

Reference copy held on CD

Reference copies on CD-R

Original recordings made on DAT held in the Drama Department. Access and archive copies are on VHS archive also holds this recording on LP and cassette

7.B.31. Location of related materials
Based on FIAF 7.2.25

When the location of related materials in other institutions is known, give the location of such related materials.

La Phonothèque du Conservatoire Occitan possède les originaux

Bibliothèque nationale de France holds dubbed copies

The Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires, Paris, holds stills

Also available on CD-R at the Audiovisual Department of the Bibliothèque nationale de France

Sound recordings for this collection held in the Sound archive. Manuscripts and still photographs held in the Documentation Section

7.B.32. Source of acquisition
Based on FIAF 7.2.24

See also: 10.B.3.2.

Give the provenance or method of acquisition of the item in a note. Cite date of receipt, method of acquisition (gift, purchase, deposit, loan, etc.) and source of the material. This information may vary between different copies of the same recording. Note that some archives may choose to maintain this information as non-public information (see also 10.B.2.2-10.B.2.3)

Déposé au Département de la Musique et de la Parole, Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires, par le collecteur en 1965

Received 1984-05-10 as legal deposit from the record company

Received 1983-02-10 at Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l'Homme-Médiathèque (Aix-en-Provence) as gift from the collector

Dubbed from tapes held by the Yale Oral History archives

Dubbed from tapes held by the Phonothèque du Conservatoire Occitan

7.B.33. Publications
Adapted from OHCM 2.7.B.15

Optionally, give a citation to or information about a recording based on the use, study, or analysis of the material described. If necessary, use appropriate introductory wording (e.g. Publications: or Portions published in:) in order to clarify the nature of the citation.

This song was subsequently issued on a CD in 1989: Traditions chantées en Bretagne : les sources du Barzaz Breiz aujourd'hui. Vol. 1. ArMen-Dastum: SCM 013

The text of the song has been transcribed and published in : Laurent, Donatien, "Aux sources du Barzaz Breiz aujourd'hui", ArMen, 1978

7.B.34. Other notes
See also: 7.B.7.3

Make notes on the notes, notes on the catalogue record and notes that cannot be made anywhere else in this area.

Published sound recording on the occasion of Help-the-children-day

Contents information missing

Contents information insufficient

Programme information missing

Programme information insufficient to identify episode details

No dubbing made

Includes spoken announcement

Opens and closes with applause

The cataloguing is based on the cataloguing made at the Radio archive

5 identical copies of this item are held

With spoken introduction by broadcaster

Applause follows conclusion of performance

7.B.35. Cataloguer comment
Adapted from FIAF 7.2.27

See also: 02_B4

Although normal standards in cataloguing require impartiality of the cataloguer, some archives have found it useful to provide a space where catalogers may record a more subjective evaluation of the content. For instance, cataloguer comment notes may be of assistance when preparing an exhibition or broadcast programme, or to be used by future scholars or researchers to prepare lectures or produce publications.

Record a subjective comment of the contents commencing with the term Cataloguer comment followed by a colon and a space. A cataloguer comment should be brief but informative. The note must include some form of identification of the cataloguer which will be meaningful at least to the originating archive: the cataloguer's initials will usually suffice.

This is a permissive, not a prescriptive rule: a cataloguer comment should be used internally only, and be excluded from any published or public catalogue.

Cataloguer comment: Performer becomes increasingly intoxicated as the recording progresses (AP)

Cataloguer comment: The commentary accompanying this item could be considered sexist and patronising, and is perhaps indicative of male attitudes towards women during the 1950s (HML)

Area 1: Great white wonder / Bob Dylan

Cataloguer comment: These white labelled discs are believed to be an example of the 1969 bootleg release of this double album (OJ)

8: Numbers and terms of availability

8.0. Introduction

8.0.1. Definition and scope

Number is here either an internationally recognised number, e.g. International Standard Book Number (ISBN), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), International Standard Recording Code (ISRC), or any other number that identifies an item uniquely.

Types of numbers recorded in this area, in addition to or instead of, international standard numbers are:

  • catalogue number, allocated for marketing purposes by a record company, and usually, but not necessarily, unique. For documenting and cataloguing purposes, a catalogue number is usually preceded by the record label and a colon. Label and catalogue number information is particularly significant for published sound recordings, and should always be included in a catalogue record for these items.
  • matrix number (or matrix and take number) allocated at the recording session by a record company to identify a side of a disc, and which appears on all disc formats through the production process for that recording. Matrix (and take) numbers are usually, but not necessarily, unique. Matrix (and take) numbers are particularly significant information for 78 rpm discs, and in these cases are especially useful in confirming identification of different performances of the same work by the same artist(s). Similarly a master tape number may be allocated by a record company for identification purposes during the production process. Note that sometimes the number on a master tape may be identical to the catalogue number on the published item.
  • a number used by a broadcaster for identification purposes, such as production, library or series number. Do not confuse these numbers with episode numbers for broadcast series or serials or with catalogue numbers on published sound recordings.
  • European Article Number. The European Article Number (EAN) is a unique number for special articles, not only phonogrammes. It is comparable to the Universal Product Code (UPC) in the USA, and is normally given as a bar code on the record sleeve or any other article's packaging or wrapping.
  • Label Code. The Label Code (LC) was introduced in 1977 by the IFPI (International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Industries) in order to unmistakably identify the different record labels (see Introduction, Record labels) for rights purposes. The Label Code consists historically of 4 figures, presently being extended to 5 figures, preceded by LC and a dash (e.g. LC-0193 = Electrola; LC-0233 = His Master's Voice). Note that the number of countries using the LC is limited, and that the code given on the item is not always accurate.

8.0.2. Order of information

The number that specifically identifies the item being described is given first (e.g. label and catalogue number). Other numbers (e.g. matrix numbers for more than one side of a disc described in a single catalogue record, catalogue number for additional formats of the same release of a published sound recording) are given next. Where these are different types of numbers, or numbers relating to different formats, give them as a repetition of the same area. 8.0.3. Other numbers This area does not generally apply to institution specific numbers such as shelf location, legal deposit, accession, registration, or consignment numbers. Such numbers form part of the information related to a particular copy of an item, rather than to all copies of the same item, and should be recorded in 10.B.1 and/or 10.B.8.1, if Chapter 10 is adopted. Alternatively, these types of internal numbers may be given in Area 8.

This area does not apply to episode numbers for series or serials. Instead this information is given in Area 6.

Numbers appearing in the item that relate to its bibliographic history (e.g. the label name and issue number of a previous issue of a sound recording) are not given in Area 8. When considered important, they may be given in 7.B.9.

8.A. Preliminary rule

AACR2 1.8A, 6.8A

8.A.1. Punctuation

Developed from ISBD (NBM) Area 8, Punctuation pattern Precede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space or start a new paragraph (. - ).
Precede each repetition of this area by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ).
Precede terms of availability by a space, colon, space ( : ).
Enclose a qualification to the number or terms of availability in parentheses (()).

8.A.2. Sources of information
AACR2 1.8A2 Take information recorded in this area from any appropriate source.

8.B. Number

Adapted from AACR2 1.8B, 6.7B19

8.B.1.
Based on ISBD (NBM) 8.1.2
Adapted from ISBD (NBM) 8.1.6, 8.1.7
Adapted from AACR2 1.8B1, 6.7B19

See also: 9.1.A.8.3, 9.1.A.8.4.1 Give the record catalogue number preceded by the record label and a colon, space for published sound recordings. Give the variants (set number), the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), International Standard Recording Code (ISRC), International Standard Work Code (ISWC), International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN), the production number or any other number for the item being described. Ensure that sufficient identification of the kind of number being given is included, if it would not otherwise be obvious. Optionally, give standardized numbers as an extra access point

RCA: 74321 355582

EMI: 3463827

Mercury: 136 145-7

ISWC T-034.524.680-1

Matrix number: A997

Matrix number: 3171

Matrix number: 874c

RCA Victor: STVL-1007

ISBN 87-412-4209-2

ISRC SE-T38-86-302-12

Production no.: 1016-93/2176
(Radio broadcast programme)

ISBN 87-16-11102-8
(Kit: video + book. The ISBN is also printed on the video)

ISBN 87-552-2185-8
(Kit: book + floppy disc)

REROM 8080
(Interactive multimedia )

Optionally, for published sound recordings, when the Label Code is considered necessary and can be readily ascertained, include it as a qualifier of the label name.

EMI (LC-0542): 796048-2

Optionally, for instance with broadcast materials, where a broadcaster's control number may have the appearance of a label and catalogue number but is not, commence this information with a suitable term and a colon followed by a space. Where such a term appears on the item , use what is given.

Library no: BBC: 1 A 65

Series no: AWA: AW 47/6906

Optionally, when cataloguing sound recordings which form part of the production process for commercially released recordings, also include the label and catalogue number for the final product, even if the final product is not held. When the final product is not held, qualify the label and catalogue number with an indication that the number is from an item which is from the production process (e.g. master tape ).

W&G: 35S 5589 (master tape )

W&G: 25/5100 (master tape for side A)

8.B.2. Developed and adapted from AACR2 1.8B2, 6.7B19

If an item , consisting of one unit, has two or more numbers, give the principal number if one can be ascertained, otherwise give both or all. If the item has two or more labels, give all labels.

Deutsche Grammophon: 2720 009
(Principal number)

Virgin: PANCD 001, PANCD 2
(Different numbers of the same type, for the same item )

EMI, Rockhead: 8650352
(Two labels and one number for the same item )

Matrix numbers: T1880-T1881
(Consecutive numbers for different sides of a 78)

Matrix numbers: T2205, T2264
(Non-consecutive numbers for different sides of a 78)

EMI: 796048-2. - EAN 0077779604821
(Two different types of numbers for the same item )

8.B.3.
Based on AACR2 6.7B19
Based on ISBD (NBM) 8.1.8
If the item consists of separately numbered units, give inclusive numbers if the numbering is consecutive; otherwise give individual numbers.

Deutsche Grammophon: 643 614 to 643 616

Bis: CD-614, CD-615, CD-300, CD-616

Optionally, give both the principal and the individual numbers and add a qualification enclosed in parentheses.

Deutsche Grammophon: 2720 009 (set), 643 614 to 643 616 (individual discs)

8.B.4. Based on ISBD (NBM) 8.1.8

When an item has two or more numbers because it is issued in more than one format , etc., each number is qualified with a suitable qualifier. Separate the numbers with a full stop, space, dash, space.

RCA Victor: SPL1-1087 (LP ). - RCA Victor: SPSC-1087 (CD)

8.B.5.
Developed from AACR2, 1.8B2If a kit bears two or more numbers belonging to different parts of the kit , give all
numbers and add a qualification enclosed in parentheses. Give the principal number, if one can be ascertained, before the number(s) for the part(s). Give numbers for parts in the order of the parts. Give a number for accompanying material last.

VI 3700 CD (CD). - ISBN 87-414-3985-6 (book)

8.B.6.
Based on ISBD (NBM) 8.1.3
Varied from AACR2 1.8B4
If a number is known to be incorrectly printed in an item , give the correct number if it can be readily ascertained, followed by a full stop, space, dash, space, and the invalid number as it appears, with the qualification invalid (or its equivalent in another language and/or script) enclosed in parentheses.

ISBN 0-340-16427-1. - ISBN 0-340-16427-2 (invalid)

8.C. Optional addition. Terms of availability

Where a cataloguing agency or archive has responsibility for publishing a current national record of production (e.g. national discography, national bibliography of audiovisual recordings) it may be necessary to include the price or other terms of availability for publicly distributed or published material.

8.C.1.AACR2 1.8D1

Give the terms on which the item is available. These terms consist of the price (given in numerals with standard symbols) if the item is for sale, or a brief statement of other terms if the item is not for sale.

£10.50

Free to the students of the university

For hire ISBD (NBM) 8.3.2Optionally, when the terms of availability need qualification, give one briefly.

£1.00 (£0.50 to members)

DKK 100 (DKK 50 to students)

If there is no number, give the terms of availability before any qualification.

Copies may be ordered from F. Povah, PO Wollar, NSW, 2850 (cassette)

$15 (CD)

9: Analytic and multilevel

9. General rule

This chapter is developed from key concepts in AACR2 13.5A and 13.6.

9.0.A. Scope and definitions

9.0.A.1. Analytic description permits single entries for individual recordings to be prepared, and subsequently linked to the catalogue entry or entries for one or more host item(s). As the term signifies, this enables the cataloguer to emphasise the identity and specific details about a particular recording which might otherwise be obscured or difficult to accommodate in the entry for the host item(s).

9.0.A.2. The opposite effect is obtained with multilevel description which permits identification of both the part and the comprehensive whole in a single record where the whole is displayed as its primary element. Increasingly more specific levels of information for smaller groups of related recordings, or individual recordings, within the whole are added to a 'first level' record. Depending on the information retrieval requirements and cataloguing policies and resources of the particular archive or cataloguing agency, multilevel description may or may not extend to the level of the individual recording. It results in one single catalogue entry which may be of considerable length. This approach is also reflected in fonds and collection level cataloguing (see Appendix A).

9.0.A.3. Use of Chapter 9 (either approach) is not mandatory. It will be necessary for the archive or cataloguing agency to decide whether to incorporate either approach in the catalogue. If it is decided to apply Chapter 9, it will be necessary for the archive or cataloguing agency to determine which alternatives will apply and under what conditions. Choice of database platform and available resources may well be deciding factors.

Note that if desired, a possible option could be to apply a combination of multilevel description (for the first level of a Collection or fonds , and if necessary the second level for a series in collection or fonds only), with host item and analytic cataloguing applied to individual recordings contained in each separate physical item. The analytic catalogue records would then be linked to their host item entry, and the appropriate collection/fonds statement, or series in collection/fonds statement, may then be recorded as a series statement in the entry for the analytic and/or host item (see 6.J and 9.1.A.6.1).

9.0.B. Sources of information
Expanded from AACR2 1.0A1, 1.0A2, 1.1A2

9.0.B.1. Use of Chapter 9 presupposes, in many instances, a degree of research. Especially for analytic and multilevel cataloguing, the prescribed sources (i.e. features of the whole item or collection) for deriving information about the individual contents may not be accurate, may be incomplete or may not even exist.

9.0.B.2. A suitable basis for the analytic or multilevel description of sound recordings, videos and electronic resources can usually be found in the accompanying documentation and container packaging. This information is usually fuller than that which can be accommodated on the relatively small area of the label or, depending on the medium, other normally designated 'chief' source of information.

However, information printed on labels and on accompanying  documentation or containers is sometimes inaccurate, and for cataloguing at the analytic level may even be non-existent. Where resources permit it is recommended that cataloguers should check information on older published items against extant scholarship, e.g. discographies (see also 0.F).

Moreover, in the case of unpublished and broadcast material, the best written information about content may be not be available from written information on/in the item itself, or its accompanying  documentation or container. Resources such as field notes, contents listings, interview summaries or transcripts, correspondence, broadcast programme schedules (published) or programme documentation (privileged information held by the broadcaster), as well as the audiovisual content of the item, may be required to develop a description. For this reason, the terms chief and prescribed sources of information are not used here.

Take information corresponding with Areas 1 (Title and statement of responsibility), 3 (Publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., and date(s) of creation), and 6 (Series) for analytic catalogue records from

  • the item itself (including any permanently affixed labels, or title frames);
  • accompanying textual material (e.g. cassette insert, CD slick, inlay or booklet, recording/project accompanying documentation such as correspondence, donor agreements, recordist's worksheets, script, transcript, cue sheet);
  • a container that is an original part of the item (sound cartridge, videocassette, sleeve, container for video); or from
  • a secondary source such as reference or research works, a publisher's or distributor's brochure, broadcast programme schedule, abstract, index or other available finding aid, container which is not an original part of the item (e.g. a film can used to store a reel of film , tape box for storing audio tape), etc., or the audiovisual content of the item itself.

If the information is taken from a secondary source, cite the source in a note, if appropriate.

Based on FIAF 0.3.8, 0.4
Enclose information in square brackets only when it is not available from any of the above sources of information, and where it is supplied by the archive or cataloguing agency on the basis that the information is known, or is at least probable. Where this information is uncertain, give a question mark after it.

Take information corresponding with Areas 5 (Physical description), 7 (Notes), 8 (Numbers) from any appropriate source, including the audiovisual content of the recording itself.

For information corresponding with Area 4, see 4.A.2.

9.0.C. Preliminary rule

9.0.C.1. Elements of descriptionChapter 9 is a microcosm of Areas 0-8 and reflects the same principles, outline and structure. At each level, the elements of the description are given in the same order and with the same punctuation as for unitary items.

9.0.C.2. PunctuationFollow the punctuation rules which apply to corresponding areas, but note the special punctuation recommended for locational references in analytic entries (see 9.1.A.9) and the instruction for separating the levels in multilevel description (see 9.2.B.2).

9.1. Analytic description

The concept of analytic description arises from the desirability in many cases, when dealing with sound recordings in an archival context, to divide the descriptive information into two separate levels: information pertaining to the physical item itself (sometimes referred to as host item or packaging information) and information pertaining to the sounds contained on the physical item as they were originally captured and regardless of any specific containment, or release (i.e. more or less equivalent to a description of a performance during a recording session)

9.1.A. Rules

9.1.A.0. General rule

9.1.A.0.1. The descriptive part of an analytic entry consists of a description of the part analysed followed by a linking phrase and a short citation of the host item, or items, on which the part occurs.

9.1.A.0.2. Make a description of the part analysed drawn from the following elements that apply to the part:

Title proper, other title information, statement/s of responsibility, date(s) of creation (i.e. recording), copyright information (relating to the realisation ), collection/series statement , notes (structured to include: realisation details, including names with roles and functions relating to the individual recording on the host item, place and date of recording, other recording circumstances, matrix and take numbers, etc. (when appropriate), ISRC or other standard number. Note that label and catalogue number will not normally apply to an analytic entry, but instead to its host item(s) when these are published recordings.

9.1.A.0.3. Follow with a suitable linking statement and a brief citation of the host item (see 9.1.A.9.0-9.1.A.9.2).

9.1.A.0.4. Since the concept of an individual recording (track) is unitary whereas the concept of a physical (host) item may be multiple, there is a danger that duplication may needlessly occur in analytic cataloguing. It is therefore recommended that archives consider making the linking element and citation for the host item repeatable. This would enable each host item and its locational reference to be contained in a single analytic catalogue entry for the particular recording itself (see 9.1.A.9.0).

9.1.A.0.5. Unless otherwise stated, rules in 9.1.A.1-9.1.A.8.5.2 apply to analytic entries only and not also to their host item(s). Description of host item(s) is, in effect, addressed separately in Areas 1-8 and Chapter 10.

9.1.A.1. Title and statement of responsibility

9.1.A.1.1. Follow the rules and examples as given for Area 1. See examples in 9.1.B below.

9.1.A.2. Edition Do not use for analytic entries. edition information relates only to the host item level.

9.1.A.3. Publication, production, distribution, broadcast, etc. and date(s) of creation
See also: 3.B.1.4

9.1.A.3.1. Analytic entries Give the date(s) of creation (i.e. recording) only in Area 3 of an analytic entry.

Do not give publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc. information in an analytic entry.

Do not give details of place of recording in Area 3 of an analytic entry.

If date and place of recording are both to be given in an analytic entry, they may be given together in a note, and Area 3 omitted.

9.1.A.3.2. Host item entriesPublication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc. information is given in Area 3 of the description for the host item only, where the host item has been published, produced, distributed, broadcast, etc.

Recorded New York City, 1921-06-11
(Note in analytic giving place and date of recording session)

[U.S.] : Columbia, ca 1923
(Area 3 in related host item)

Recorded Sydney (N.S.W.), 1966
(Note in analytic giving place and date of recording session)

Australia : Parlophone, 1966
(Area 3 in related host item)

Melbourne : 3AW [broadcaster], 26 January 1988
(Area 3 in a separate host item containing the same recording)

For unpublished host items, give the date(s) of creation (i.e. recording) only in Area 3.

9.1.A.3.3. Optionally, give the original publication, production , distribution or broadcast, etc., details in the notes area of the analytic record. This may be useful particularly in cases where the host item for the original release is not also listed in the catalogue of the archive or cataloguing agency, or where the specific content of the recording is stored in a mass storage system.

Note: Recorded Sydney, N.S.W., 1950-12-27
Note: First published [Sydney] : Wilco, [1950]
(Notes in an analytic entry about the original recording session and first publication.)

[Australia] : Sound Heritage Association, c 1996
(Area 3 in related host item)

9.1.A.3.4. Optionally, details relating to the subsequent publication, production , distribution, broadcast, etc., may be documented in a note in the analytic record.

9.1.A.4. copyright information

9.1.A.4.0. Particularly for published sound recordings, and also where an archive makes in-house copies of unpublished and broadcast recordings for preservation or reference purposes, different categories of legal rights are usually attached to the analytic and host item respectively:

Analytic entries
Performer rights, and in cases where a published work is performed mechanical rights, which are held by the publisher of the printed music or text, are attached to the individual recordings (i.e. tracks which are contained on the physical item), and therefore given in analytic entries.

Host item entries
Recording rights belong to the record company , studio or institution which made the physical copy of the recording. These are attached to the physical (or host) item in the form of a specific publication or copy (i.e. the physical item which is shelved in the archive's or library's collection).

It is therefore useful, for the sake of clarity in the description, to keep these two categories of copyright information separate. Recording rights would normally be included in the publication or copyright area of the host item, while performer and mechanical rights would normally be included in the copyright area for the analytic record. 9.1.A.4.1. Include any copyright information which pertains to the recording itself or the work which has been recorded. Qualify the statement in parentheses if required.

Copyright (song title): Stainer & Bell, London

Copyright: BBC

Copyright: R. Margoschis (recordist)

Copyright: Bibliothèque nationale de France

9.1.A.4.2. Note also that copying or reuse of an individual recording is subject to the recording rights associated with the particular host item used. This is borne out, for example, in the recent commercial availability of some published compilation reissues of recordings which were originally published as 78 rpm discs, and for which the recording rights attached to those 78 rpm discs have, through age, expired. Reuse of the contents of these newly published compilations is then subject to their own new recording rights. Hence the recording rights applicable to each host item should be included in the catalogue record for that host item.

9.1.A.4.3. Note further that if the analytic entry is for a previously published or broadcast recording which is subsequently transferred to an archive's preservation copy or stored as an audio file in an archive's jukebox or mass storage system, the details of the recording rights for the host item and/or of the p notice from which that specific recording was made should be included in the analytic catalogue record. This is for reference purposes and to assist future requests for permission to reuse the recording (see also 9.1.A.8.5.2).

Copyright (source of audio content): WEA ; p 1979
Note: copyright details are for the original item from which this preservation copy was made

9.1.A.4.4. Do not otherwise include in an analytic entry any copyright information which pertains to the manufacture or production of any physical item which may contain the recording in hand. Instead, give this information in Area 3 or Area 4 of the applicable host item(s).

9.1.A.5. Physical description

9.1.A.5.1. Normally physical description is concerned with the physical characteristics of the host item. Therefore the usual application of physical description will not apply to an individual recording which may occur on several host items. information pertaining to physical description for analytic entries for audiovisual recordings should be restricted to the audiovisual content only, regardless of the physical characteristics of the host item. Such information would include, for example, duration, whether silent (si.) or with sound (sd.) and the presence of colour (col.) or black and white (b&w) (films, videos and electronic resources). With the absence of other physical description data it is recommended that, when appropriate, this information commence with a suitable explanatory term.

Duration: 3 min., 28 sec.

14 min., 35 sec. : sd., col.

9.1.A.5.2. Alternatively, this information may be given instead as a note on physical description (see 7.B.14), or duration may be given at the end of a summary if appropriate (see optional rule in 7.B.24).

9.1.A.6. Series/collection statement

9.1.A.6.1. See also: 9.0.A.3 Series statements may be included in analytic catalogue records for unpublished items which have been created, compiled or otherwise collated as a collection.

(Bolger collection)

(George Dreyfus collection. Interviews series )

9.1.A.6.2. Additionally series statements for published or broadcast items may be entered here if necessary (e.g. in the case of analytic records for a compilation of selected episodes of radio serials).

(Night beat ; episode 1)

9.1.A.7. Notes

9.1.A.7.0. Enter in this area any elements concerned with the event as recorded. It is recommended that a strict ordering of notes is adhered to, to aid comprehension, and that this ordering follow that given in Area 7. The following highlights those notes generally considered most applicable in analytic entries for sound recordings. These focus on key information related to describing a recording session. Note, however, that any additional notes, as given in Area 7 may also be included in an analytic, if appropriate to the content being catalogued.

Notes generally considered most applicable in analytic entries for sound recordings are:

9.1.A.7.1. Statements of responsibilityGive names of persons or bodies responsible for the recorded content (e.g. composers or arrangers, performers and other contributors), together with their respective functions and roles, which are considered important, and which are not named in the statement of responsibility (see 9.1.A.1, 1.F and 7.B.7).

Arranger: Bengt Hallberg

Performers: Placido Domingo and John Denver

Recordist: Cathy Bromley

9.1.A.7.2. Material of recordingAs appropriate, provide information about the recording process itself, the original recording, or characteristics of the recording equipment including the type of tape recorder, microphones and sound tape designation. Normally this applies to unpublished material, but occasionally also to published material.

Recorded using Beyer dynamic mics into Nagra IV recorder and onto Zonal 575 tape

9.1.A.7.3. Place, date and circumstance of recordingGive available details of the place and date of recording that are not given in 9.1.A.3. Include appropriate contextual information about the recording event, or circumstance according to 7.B.11. Optionally, include the name of the recordist here.

Recorded: 1956-11-15

Recorded: Ely Cathedral

Recorded: New York City, 1931-06-11

Recorded: Interviewee's home (Liverpool)

Recorded at the Edinburgh International Festival

Latitude 41 [degrees] 30'N; Longitude 120 [degrees] 30'E; Altitude c 600m

9.1.A.8. Numbers

9.1.A.8.0. There are several standardised numbers which can be included in analytic entries. All numbers which are included will require a suitable annotation to identify them.

9.1.A.8.1. Various international standard numbering systems, e.g. ISRC , ISAN and ISWC , have been or are being developed at the time of writing these rules. In the future these will help to precisely identify individual tracks and the works that are performed on published recordings. If obtainable, enter such numbers here.

9.1.A.8.2. For unpublished recordings, include any original numbering allocated to the recording by, for instance, the recordist or collector.

Collector's original number: 58

Alternatively, where the recording is part of a named collection, give the recordist's or collector's number as a volume number in the series statement (see 9.1.A.6.1.) within the analytic entry

(Frederick Smith collection; 58)

Alternatively, if the recordist's or collector's number relates only to the host item, give it in the entry for the host item instead (see 6.J).

9.1.A.8.3. For broadcasts, include any numbering associated with the original programme or recorded item as created for identification purposes by the originating organisation (see second optional rule in 8.B.1).

Alternatively, where the recording is (part of) a broadcast series or serial , give the broadcaster's number as a volume number in the series statement (see 9.1.A.6.2) within the analytic entry.

Alternatively, if the broadcaster's number relates to the host item, give it in the entry for the host item (see second optional rule in 8.B.1).

9.1.A.8.4. Matrix and take numbers

9.1.A.8.4.1. Of significance only to the coarse groove era, enter the matrix and take number associated with the recording (see 8.B.1).

9.1.A.8.4.2. Include qualifying statements such as alternate, previously unissued, as appropriate.

9.1.A.8.5. Label and catalogue number

9.1.A.8.5.1. Generally, label and catalogue number information are normally given in the catalogue record for the host item only for published recordings.

Columbia: A3936

9.1.A.8.5.2.

When, however, a recording which was published, is copied to an archive's preservation, dubbing or reference tape, or stored in its jukebox or mass storage system, it may be appropriate to include in the analytic entry for the recording, the details of the label and catalogue number for the host item from which the recording was copied. This is to assist with correct discographical identification in the future, and would be especially helpful in cases where there is no description for the original host item in the catalogue (see also 9.1.A.4.4.).

Precede such label and catalogue number information with a suitable phrase

This recording from: Regal: G22493

9.1.A.9. Locational reference to whole or host item
See also: 9.0.C.2

9.1.A.9.0. The locational reference to the host item comprises: the term In: followed by a brief citation of the host item, and concludes with details of the location on the host item. The recording may be present on one or more sound physical items. Accordingly, it is recommended that the locational reference be repeatable for each host item. Start a new line for each new locational reference statement.

9.1.A.9.1. Commence with the term In: or its equivalent in another language and/or script.

Follow with the citation for the host item. This should include:

the name and/or title of the host item; statement(s) of responsibility, if appropriate; and edition/release statement, when necessary for identification. Note that where host item(s) are published sound recordings, their full label name and catalogue number are to be included in the citation. For broadcast items include sufficient details about the broadcaster, and date of broadcast or other specific identifying information, such as tape number or episode number of a serial , in the citation for the host item.

In: Bessie Smith : the world's greatest blues singer. - CBS: CG33. - Side 2 band 6

In: 4BH collection. archives series . - Tape S41. - Cut 1

9.1.A.9.2. Give the locational reference to the recorded item according to its physical position on the host item(s) in the collection, or to its address in a jukebox or mass storage system. Include a duration statement in minutes and seconds if important, and if the duration is not already given elsewhere. The terminology used will depend on the type of physical item in hand, the way in which its playing surface has been divided up and the language of the cataloguing agency involved. These are the recommended terms for use in English-speaking agencies:

Analogue disc recordings
Sides 1 - 4
Side 1 bands 1 - 4
Band 4

CD recordings
Band 7
disc 2 band 7

Tape recordings (reel )
Reel 1 cut 6 (duration 1 min. 22 sec.)
Reel 1 track B cut 6

Tape recordings (videocassette)
01:40:36 [i.e. 1 hour, 40 minutes, 36 seconds]

Tape recordings (DAT)
Index marker 4, or
Start id 4

audio file time code display on playback equipment
00:43:35 - 01:19:45
(i.e. start id is 43 minutes, 35 seconds, end id is 1 hour, 19 minutes, 45 seconds]

Floppy disk or CD-ROM
a:\Shetlands\Eiderd.wav:
[i.e. drive is a, path is Shetlands, filename is Eiderd.wav]

9.1.A.9.3. Optionally, include the in-house collection management control number or shelf-mark for ease of reference and retrieval.

It is important to note that the appearance of the brief citation for the host item in the analytic entry does not preclude preparation of a separate catalogue record for the description and retrieval of the host item in the collection.

9.1.B. Examples of analytic entries

1. Published recording of musical performance on two physical items

I could write a book / Miles Davis Quintet

Music by Richard Rodgers ; originally with lyrics by Lorenz Hart

Recorded: 1956-10-26 at Van Gelders Studio, Hackensack, NJ

In: Cookin'/Relaxin'. - CD. - Prestige: CDJZD 003. - Side 1 band 7

In: Chronicle. - Boxed set of compact discs. - Prestige: 8 PCD012. - Side 8 band 4

2. Unpublished recording of musical performance on single physical item

Home without mother : traditional song from Sussex, England / Mary Ann Haynes, female singer and Ted Haynes, male singer. - copyright: Mike Yates and recorded artists. - (Mike Yates archive)

Mary Ann Haynes is a gypsy by birth but had settled in Brighton at the time of recording. Ted is Mary Ann Haynes' son

Recorded: 1973-03-04, live, Brighton, Sussex by Mike Yates

In: Haynes Family. - 1 reel : stereo. - Unpublished tape. - Band 8

3. Unpublished recording of non-musical item from collection

Aeroplanes, jet. Military bombers. - copyright: Henry Brugsh, licensed to NSA for re-use in publications or transcriptions without further reference to owner Avro Vulcan

Recorded: 1990-06-30, RAF Woodford Air Show by Henry Brugsh

Summary: At RAF Woodford, the airshow commemorates the Avro

Vulcan on its withdrawal from service. After the flying display, a poem in memory of the bomber, written by a member of the Vulcan Association is read over loudspeakers, with (also over loudspeakers) a recording of the Vulcan's noise

In: Brugsh recordings. - 1992. - Unpublished videotape. - Cut 4

4. Wildlife recording on published physical item

Somateria mollissima = Eider duck. - copyright: BBC Worldwide/Natural History Unit. - Duration: 2 min., 07 sec.

Recorded: Shetland Islands, Scotland by David Tombs

Males 'crooning' accompanied by quacks of females

In: Weird and wonderful natural sounds.- London: BBC, 1996. - 1 cassette. - Side 2 cut 6

5. Oral history interview from unpublished collection

[Oral history interview with Carlyle Edmund Seppings]. - copyright: British Library. - Recorded 1982-10-27. - (India Office Library and Records interviews. Memories of the British in India)

Carlyle Edmund Seppings (male interviewee) interviewed by David Blake

Interview lasts approximately 4 hours, final section of low sound quality due to battery running down

Summary: Seppings interviewed about his life in Burma until 1950

Background and education in Burma; university at Rangoon and attitudes to Burmese people; outbreak of World War 2 and joining Burma Rifles; 1st Burma campaign, especially action at Sittang Bridge; Special Operations Executive (SOE) in the Inter ...etc.

In: India Office Library and Records interviews. Memories of the British in India. -109 tape reel s. - Unpublished. - Reel 1 cut 1

6. Broadcast item on 3 separate physical items, including institutional dubbings

The Tempest / by William Shakespeare ; adapted and arranged for radio by Dennis Drew Arundell.- copyright: BBC

Howleson Culff (Antonio), Franklin Dyall (Alonson), Lewis Stringer

(Sebastian), Anthony Jacobs (Ferdinand), Gabrielle Blunt (Miranda), et. al.

Incidental music played by the BBC Opera Orchestra conducted by Stanford Robinson with Jennifer Vyvyan (Juno)

"Arranged for broadcasting " by Dennis Arundell, using the incidental

music composed by Sibelius

The part of Prospero is not listed in the available documentation

Recorded: 1949-12-31 by the BBC

BBC recording broadcast on the Third Programme, date unknown

Poor sound quality (dubbing of cracked acetates)

In: BBC MX 15531-15537.- Unpublished acetates

In: T11694WR.- Playback copy dubbing 1996. - 1 tape reel . - Cut 1

In: CDRNNNNNNN.- archive digitised dubbing, 1996. - CDR - Cut 1

7. Recording published on two host items

Long road / Bessie Smith, [music, words and] vocals. - Duration: 3 min., 21 sec.

Bessie Smith confirmed as composer and lyricist from printed music

Louis Bacon, cornet ; Charlie Green, trombone ; Clarence Williams,

piano ; Floyd Casey, drums

Recorded: New York City, 1931-06-11

Matrix number: W-15195-3

In: Long road ; Shipwreck blues / Bessie Smith. - Columbia: 14663-D. - Side 1

In: Bessie Smith : the world's greatest blues singer. - CBS: CG33. - Side 2 band 6

9.2. Multilevel description

See also: 6.J

9.2.A. As with analytic description, multilevel description permits detailed description of the contents of a physical item or of a collection. The opposite effect, to analytic description, however, is obtained with multilevel description which adds layers of information to a first level record representing a container or, more usually, a collection of containers.

Multilevel description is normally applied by archives and cataloguing agencies which prepare entries needing complete identification of both part and comprehensive whole in a single record, where the description of the whole is displayed as its primary element. Additionally it has traditionally been used in those archives and cataloguing agencies which apply the technique of fonds and collection level cataloguing (see Appendix A).

This first level record is a broad collective description for all the contents of a container, or more usually a collection of physical items.

Second and subsequent levels will provide description of parts of the whole. Depending on the volume of material comprising the whole, the second level may relate to a group of physical items (which for example may form a series in an archival collection or fonds) or it may relate to one physical item (which for example may be an individual disc published as part of a set of discs, or may be an individual item or recording in a collection or fonds).

The whole multilevel description is contained in a single cataloguing record. Thus the description of the content is effectively hierarchically embedded in the multilevel description , so reflecting the natural position (or 'order of provenance ') of the individual (or group of) recording(s) as created in the collection, or presented in a published compilation set of discs, etc.

For this reason, multilevel catalogue records may extend to considerable length involving many pages, or many screens on a computer display.

Depending on the information retrieval requirements and/or cataloguing policies and resources of the particular archive of cataloguing agency, multilevel description may or may not extend to the level of the individual recording.

Also depending on the archive's or cataloguing agency's information retrieval and display requirements multilevel descriptions may either:

a) imply that information document ed in higher levels of the multilevel description hierarchy naturally relates or 'flows down' to the lower levels (and therefore need not be repeated in the lower levels), or

b) be designed to include important information at the more detailed levels, even if some information is repeated.

9.2.B.1. Divide the descriptive information into two or more levels. The first level will consist only of information relating to the broadest context which is common to all contents. This may be a single carrier or a collection of carriers. The second level will consist of information relating to a group of recordings or a single recording contained on that carrier or within that collection. If the second level describes a group of recordings, use a third level to describe any individual recordings from that group

9.2.B.2. See also: 9.0.C.2 Follow the punctuation rules which apply to corresponding area.

Distinguish each level clearly with an appropriate heading.

First level

Distinguish each discrete entry with an appropriate numeric or alphanumeric as appropriate to the material being catalogued.

1.
C2.

9.2.C. Example of a multilevel entryExample 5 in 9.1.C above would therefore appear instead:

First level:
India Office Library and Records interviews. Memories of the British in India / collected by the British Library India Office Library & Records. - 1970-1990. - Copyright: British Library. - 109 reels.

Collection of 205 separate interviews.
Unpublished tapes.
Copies also held at the School of Oriental and African Studies

Second level:
1. [Oral history interview with Carlyle Edmund Seppings]. - Recorded 1982-10-27 .
Carlyle Edmund Seppings, male interviewee, interviewed by David Blake.

Interview lasts approximately 4 hours.
Final section of low sound quality due to battery running down.
Summary: Seppings interviewed about his life in Burma until 1950.

Background and education in Burma; university at Rangoon and attitudes to Burmese people; outbreak of World War 2 and joining Burma Rifles; 1st Burma campaign, especially action at Sittang Bridge; Special Operations Executive (SOE) in the Inter ...etc.
(Here the first level describes the collection as a whole. The second level commences with details of the first interview in the collection)

10: Item/copy information

10.0 Scope and definitions

10.0.1. Chapter 10 is optional.

10.0.2. Use of Chapter 10 implies that the archive includes information on its collection management activities in a single catalogue. This information may be regarded as restricted and therefore maintained and/or displayed separately from other information in the catalogue. Nevertheless it is essential, if included, that this information is referenced to the description, prepared according to Areas 1-8, for the original item or first copy held, and also linked to information about other related copies in the archive so that accurate inventories and 'audit trails' can be produced.

10.0.3. Chapter 10 provides guidelines for describing in detail the physical make-up and derivation of additional copies, be they copies of items from the archive's own holdings (which will have been made typically for conservation purposes) or from elsewhere, e.g. items loaned by an external collector for copying. This mostly concerns unpublished and broadcast recordings but may apply to published items, in particular those which appear on vulnerable formats. In an ideal world each copy corresponds to a single original item (i.e. one tape reel copied to another tape reel), but the short duration of most early items makes such a policy uneconomic and it is therefore more typical for compilation copies to be created, i.e. several items on 78 rpm discs copied to a single reel of tape. Where this occurs, the newly compiled item will require its own new catalogue record with supplied title (see 1.G.6), and a description corresponding to the rules in areas 3-8. However, detailed information relating to this newly created item, and any subsequent copies of it, may be handled through Chapter 10.

10.0.4. Chapter 10 may also be used to record detailed descriptions of published items acquired as different or duplicate formats, e.g. where an item is published simultaneously as a CD and as an audiocassette and both are held by the archive, or where more than one copy of each format is acquired.

10.0.5. The most substantial part of an entry using Chapter 10 will consist of notes (10.B.7) which reflect observations made by the conservation or curatorial staff. These should be entered in a format similar to the scientific method: observations about the original, and, when it is to be copied: observations about the copying process itself (e.g. the equipment used in the copying, the parameters governing the migration of digital data from one file to another) and observations about the resulting copy. Such observations should be sufficiently detailed and precise to enable a future conservator to reverse engineer the copy if need be.

10.0.6.The other vital information to be included here concerns source of acquisition: where the item being copied came from; who owned it; is the item itself a copy and if so, how and when was it copied, etc. (see 10.B.2, 10.B.7.6).

10.A. Preliminary rule

10.A.1. PunctuationThere is no equivalent in ISBD for Chapter 10. Therefore Chapter 10 does not correspond to ISBD punctuation. In any case, most of the information in Chapter 10 will appear in note form.

Precede each note by a full stop, space, dash, space (. - ) or start a new paragraph for each. Separate introductory wording from the main content of a note by a colon followed, but not preceded by, a space (: ).

The only exception to this general rule is where a second or subsequent item has a different physical format from the first (original) item described in the catalogue record, e.g. the first item is an LP, the second a cassette. In these cases follow the punctuation from Area 5 when giving their physical description in Chapter 10.

10.A.2. Sources of information

10.A.2.1. Take information recorded according to this chapter from any appropriate source, e.g. the item itself, including any labels, etc. that are permanently affixed; the audiovisual content of the item; a container which is an original part of the item; accompanying textual material; a secondary source; the conservator's or curator's own observations or those of a predecessor, or correspondence with the source of acquisition.

10.B. Rules

10.B.0. General rule

10.B.0.1. Generally more than one copy of an item will be maintained in an audiovisual archive. For this reason, Chapter 10 is intended to be repeated for as many duplicates or copies of the item that are held. Start a new paragraph, or a separate entry for each separate item and/or copy.

Commence with sufficient identification of the item within the collection. This will comprise a brief bibliographic citation for the item and/or copy, followed with an indication as to which item and/or copy it is. The remainder of the item /copy information includes information pertinent to the particular item, such as that outlined in 10.0.3-10.0.6 above.

10.B.1. Identification of the copy and/or item Give a brief citation drawn from the bibliographic description of the original item or first copy held. This should include the name and/or title of the original item or first copy held; statement(s) of responsibility, if appropriate; and edition/release statement, when necessary for identification. Where the original item or first copy held is a published sound recording, its full label name and catalogue number are to be included in the citation. For broadcast items include sufficient details about the broadcaster, and date of broadcast or other specific identifying information, such as tape number or episode number of a serial, in the citation for the original item or first copy held.

Follow with an indication that it is the first, second or third copy held, and/or an indication of the status of the item in the collection (Preservation, Duping, Access, etc.) and/or the accession or shelf number, according to the archive's collection management system and procedures.

Bessie Smith : the world's greatest blues singer. - CBS: CG33
1LP 00107034

Bessie Smith : the world's greatest blues singer. - CBS: CG33
Item 1: Preservation. - PLM000075 Item 2: Access. - ALM000034

10.B.2. Copy source

10.B.2.1. In the case of describing a copy, which has been made by the archive, and is derived from a source copy which is owned by the archive, it may only be necessary to refer to it by means of local shelf or accession number. The record corresponding to the source copy should already contain sufficient information about its own origins. Optionally, include a brief physical description of the original or provide a brief citation.

Bessie Smith : the world's greatest blues singer. - CBS: CG33
Tape NNNN
Copied from: 1LP 00107034: NSA-owned disc 30 cm 33 rpm

Alternatively, if appropriate to the archive's Collection management system and procedures, give full details of the status of the item in the collection.

[Works by Fritz Hart : in-house compilation]
Item 2: Duping. - DEJ000296. - 1 sound cassette (DAT, 22 min., 12 sec.)
Copied from: Item 1: Preservation. - PEL000153-PEL000154. - 2 sound tape reels (22 min., 12 sec.) : 76 cm/sec, 2 track, mono ; 25 cm

10.B.2.2.
See also: 7.B.32 If the copy is derived from a source copy not owned by the archive, i.e. it has been loaned with permission for the archive to make its own copy before returning the original to its owner, enter details of the item as loaned and the name of the donor. Include the date of the loan, any record label/number information, title(s), if any, and a brief physical description.

78 rpm disc Columbia D359 loaned by Mrs E Dalgliesh on 3rd April 1976 for copying. The disc was returned on 20th of April

Tape T49963 (formerly SLN 51 411D 752) "Christmas at King's", loaned 5th January 1991 for copying by the BBC Sound Archives

10.B.2.3. If the copy or original item is acquired from an external source, give the details of the source, together with date of acquisition and method of acquisition in a note (see 10.B.7).

10.B.3. Date of copying and name of person(s) who made the copy

10.B.3.1. When the copy is made in-house, or has been commissioned externally for the archive, e.g. from a recording studio, precede a statement of the date on which the copy was made with a suitable term such as Dubbed or Copied, or its equivalent in another language and/or script.

10.B.3.2. Give the date of copying, if the copy is made in-house, or has been commissioned externally by the institution, e.g. from a recording studio.

Copied: 17 April 1998

10.B.3.3.Give the name of the person(s) who made the copy.

Copied by: Lloyd Stickells

10.B.4. Copyright and restrictions on the copy

10.B.4.1. CopyrightWhere the copy is made in-house, and the source of the copy is a published or a broadcast item, then whatever rights pertain to the source material hold true for the copy which will be understood as a necessary security or safeguarding measure rather than as an attempt to produce an unauthorised version for further distribution. Such information can therefore be left to reside with the bibliographic entry corresponding to the source material for the copy being made.

10.B.4.2. RestrictionsIf the source material for the copy is unpublished, then rights will depend on the terms on which the archive acquired the source copy. Such information can therefore be left to reside with the bibliographic entry corresponding to the source material for the copy being made.

Give here either Restricted or Unrestricted or their equivalent in another language and/or script. If the former, and where it may not be appropriate to display the full specific details of the restriction publically in the restrictions note of the bibliographic record (see 7.B.29), then include any relevant terms here.

Restricted: no access permitted until 30 (thirty) years after the donor's death

10.B.5. Physical descriptionDescribe the physical characteristics of the copy following the rules in Area 5. Add further detail, as required, in the notes (see also 7.B.14).

10.B.6. Series/Collection statement - DO NOT USE. Instead give collection statements or information relating to published series in the bibliographic record (see Area 6).

10.B.7. Notes
See also: 10.B.2.3

10.B.7.1. If appropriate, the first note must describe the audiovisual characteristics and/or the physical condition of the source material to be copied (see 7.B.10, 7.B.14-7.B.16).

Previously reproduced on a TEAC C-2X cassette deck with no noise reduction in circuit, monaural. Duration 00:11:59

Tape sticks to heads on playback machine

10.B.7.2. Include a general note including observations made by the conservator at the time the copy was made (see 7.B.14-7.B.17, 7.B.28).

The lender, who is also the performer in this recording, included a note to the effect that the pitch-corrected version (-3%) was to be used. This version had been prepared by EMI engineers. On listening to this version I found the opening bars badly broken up by drop-outs. The solution was to take the original recording and pitch correct that to achieve the desired effect

10.B.7.3. Describe the equipment and mechanical processes (e.g. added equalisation or noise reduction) used to make the copy and include any results and conclusions (see 7.B.17).

The audio signal was played into the DAR SoundStation where the original piece was copied to enable the pitch correction (-3%) to be applied along with the original version. The resulting VHS copy has, therefore, both versions which are digital transfers from SoundStation. The duration of the pitch-corrected version is 0:12:21

RIAA curve applied

Title: [Assorted NSA-owned 78 rpm dubbings]
1CS0075269 copy dubbed: EQ FLAT/636/FLAT; Mousetrap SC1; Cedar DC 20.0/Medium; CR 70.0/20.0/Cr1
Other copies dubbed: EQ FLAT/531/FLAT; Mousetrap SC1; Cedar DC 20.0/Medium; CR 51.0/20.0/Cr1
1CS0079054 copy dubbed: Cedar CR 61.0/20.0/Cr1.

10.B.7.4. Additionally, notes may also be included here regardless of whether or not the item is being copied. These may be notes on physical description (see 7.B.14), physical condition (see 7.B.15), quality of the recording (see 7.B.16) conservation/preservation (see 7.B.17), and on item or copy being described (see 7.B.28) may be included here.

10.B.7.5. For additional guidance on terms for describing the physical condition of sound recordings, see Appendix C.

10.B.7.6. Where the item is acquired from an external source, include the name of the source and the date and method of the acquistion (see 7.B.32).

10.B.8. Copy number(s)

10.B.8.1. Include any numbering associated with the copy, including local shelf-marks or accession numbers and external batch processing or contractor numbers.

Dubbing contractor's reference: JB 450

10.B.8.2.Since the properties of certain batches or makes of recordable carrier may be significant to future conservators or sound engineers, record the serial number of the carrier(s) used for the copy.

Physical description: 2 CDRs 63m (Red Book)

CD-R serial nos. 414616121305, 414616121327

10.B.8.3.Where there may be some variation between catalogue number information for different formats of the same release of a published recording, give the label and catalogue number information applicable to the item being described.

10.B.9. Reference to other copy number(s)While reference will already have been made to the source copy number in 10.B.2, there may be other copies related to the copy being described. These copies may be the results of earlier conservation activity which are themselves deteriorating and in need of replacement or they may be part of some archival policy to generate in all cases an access or playback copy as well as an archive or preservation copy. Include the numbers of any related copies with appropriate annotations.

Tape NNNNN now replaced by this copy. Earlier copy discarded

The access copy, which is a digital clone of the copy described above, is numbered Tape NNNNN

Appendix A. Fonds and collection level cataloguing

Contents:

A.1. Introduction
A.2. Fonds level cataloguing
A.3. Collection level cataloguing

A.1. Introduction

A.1.1.

This appendix briefly considers the concept of fonds level and collection level cataloguing.

A.1.2.

It is included for information, with the recommendation that existing standards such as ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description. Ottawa: ICA, 1994; Rules for Archival Description. Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1990 and Steven L. Hensen (comp.), Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts: A Cataloging Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies and Manuscript Libraries. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1983, be used to assist the preparation of cataloguing records for fonds and collections, and their series and files.

A.1.3.

By outlining these concepts here, it is not intended to encourage fonds and/or collection level cataloguing as the only approach for managing and providing access to sound and audiovisual collections.

A.1.4.

Clearly, many sound and audiovisual archives and libraries must describe, manage and give access to individual documents and even to parts of these documents (e.g. tracks on recorded sound compilations) with considerable efficiency and precision. In such cases a fonds level or collection level catalogue record alone would not be sufficient to serve the information needs of these organisations or their users. Indeed, this level of description may not be necessary in some audiovisual archives and libraries (e.g. organisations maintaining their own archive only and/or which have high or intensive use of items in their collection, such as gramophone record libraries, or programme archives and stock shot collections in broadcasting organisations).

A.1.5.

Conversely, other audiovisual archives and libraries may be legally or administratively required to apply fonds and collection level description for the material they hold. Yet other organisations may find this approach helpful for some (if not all) parts of their holdings.

Top

A.2. Fonds level cataloguing

A.2.1.

Traditionally, organisations dealing with government records, corporate records or personal collections first describe and control these documents at the fonds level. Documents may then be systematically maintained as (archival) series within the fonds or collection, as necessary and appropriate. The archival series may also be sub-arranged into files of documents.

Cataloguing entries prepared at these levels provide basic description, control of and access to these fonds, collections, series and files.

A.2.2.

Time permitting, an inventory of the individual documents and/or their contents may be prepared so providing increased access to the material.

A.2.3.

This approach assists a) documenting provenance and b) maintaining order of provenance.

A.2.4.

Also, it assists organisations with the management and control of what are often very large volumes of material.

A.2.5.

In addition this approach allows for the content of the fonds and collections to be broadly described within the historical, cultural and social context surrounding their creation.

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  • A.3. Collection level cataloguing

    A.3.1.

    Where organisations hold large collections of similar material, they may initially employ collection level cataloguing to broadly describe and control these materials and to provide basic access to them. Series, files and inventories of the material in these collections may be subsequently prepared. Two examples of collection level catalogue records follow. Calwell, Arthur A. (Augustus), 1896-1973

    Calwell collection : [sound recordings]

    1943-1951

    18 sound discs (lacquer) ; 30 cm

    2 sound discs (lacquer) ; 41 cm

    1 sound disc : 33 1/3 rpm ; 30 cm

    3 sound cassettes : analogue

    5 sound reels ; 13 cm

    2 sound reels ; 17 cm

    Addresses, election and referendum speeches by Arthur Calwell; together with speeches by John Curtin and A.B.Chifley and Dr Evatt

    Australian politician elected to Parliament as federal member for Melbourne in 1940, Arthur Calwell became Minister for Information in 1943, and Australia's first Minister for Immigration 1945-49, initiating a programme of large scale non-British immigration. He became deputy parliamentary leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) in 1951, and leader 1960-67, retiring from Parliament in 1972

    Listing available. Manuscript materials held in the National Library

    Access points:

    I. Curtin, John, 1885-1945. II. Chifley, J. B. (Joseph Benedict), 1885-1951. III. Evatt, H. V. (Herbert Vere), Dr, 1894-1965. 1. Australia -- Politics and government -- 20th century. 2. Australia -- Emigration and immigration. 3. Australian Labor Party

    Melba, Nellie, Dame, 1861-1931

    Hogarth-Melba collection : [sound recordings]

    1904-1926

    1 sound disc (lacquer) ; 25 cm

    11 sound discs : 78 rpm ; 25 cm

    106 sound discs : 78 rpm ; 30 cm

    2 scrapbooks

    Full range of Melba's repertoire, opera, songs and ballads, including the 1926 Covent Garden farewell performance, collected by William Hogarth

    Melba studied with Pietro Cecchi in Melbourne, and later with Mme. Marchesi in Paris. She made her operatic debut in Brussels in 1887 and subsequently won international acclaim, touring extensively in Europe, the United States and Australia. Her last performance at Covent Garden was in 1926, and her last Australian appearance was at Geelong, Vic. in 1928

    Listing available

    Access points:

    I. Hogarth, William. 1. Operas -- Excerpts. 2. Songs (High voice)

 

 

Appendix B. Examples

Contents:

  1. Popular music on CD - album
  2. Popular music on 78
  3. Popular music on 78 - medley
  4. Popular music on CD - compilation
  5. Popular music on LP - different mixes
  6. Popular music on CD - collection
  7. Talking book
  8. Popular music on CD - multipart item
  9. Popular music on LP - multipart item without a collective title
  10. Classical music on cylinder
  11. Classical music on 78 - 4 examples with supplied uniform titles
  12. Pop video - live recording
  13. Opera video - stage performance
  14. Opera film
  15. Opera video - highlights of stage performance
  16. Ethnographic field recordings on LP - host item and analytic entry
  17. Wildlife recording - unpublished compilation
  18. Oral history on tape reel - unpublished
  19. Oral history on cassette - unpublished
  20. Spoken word on 78 - recitals
  21. Spoken word on 78 - language course
  22. Dubbing - in-house compilation prepared for preservation and reference use
  23. Radio music production on CD-R - multipart item
  24. Audio file of radio production stored in a remote access system - analytic entry
  25. Radio music production on DAT - live recording
  26. Published CD of previously broadcast radio production
  27. Interactive multimedia on CD-ROM - Spanish
  28. Interactive multimedia on CD-ROM - Swedish
  29. Remote access electronic resource - host item
  30. Remote access electronic resource - host item and analytic entry
  31. Kit - books + cassettes
  32. Kit - books + videos + CD-ROM
  33. Radio documentary - original studio copies and dubbing
  34. Mechanical sounds
  35. Sound effects
  36. Ethnographic collection - multipart item
  37. Ethnographic recordings - analytic entries

1. Popular music on CD - album

Joyride [sound recording] / Roxette. - Köln : EMI, p 1991. - 1 sound disc (CD, ca. 60 min.) : digital, stereo Words and music: Per Gessle (unless otherwise stated)
Lyrics in booklet
Contents: Joyride -- Hotblooded / P. Gessle, M. Fredriksson -- Fading like a flower (every time you leave) -- Knockin' on every door -- Spending my time / P. Gessle, M. Persson -- Watercolours in the rain / P. Gessle, M. Fredriksson, C. Öfwerman -- The big L. -- (Do you get) Excited? / P. Gessle, M. Persson -- Small talk -- Physical fascination -- Things will never be the same -- Perfect day / P. Gessle, M. Persson
EMI (LC-0542): 796048-2. - EAN 0077779604821 Composer/lyricist given as a note, and exceptions from that given in the contents note, after the titles.

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2. Popular music on 78

Saa møj' en sørreli' Wies [sound recording] : Jysk Bondevise / sunget af Chr. Schrøder. - [S.l.] : Gramophone, [1903]. - 1 sound disc (ca. 3 min.) : analogue, mono, 78 rpm ; 25 cm Parallel title: En meget sørgelig vise
Recorded on one side only
Zonophone: X 72147. - Matrix number: 684 z

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3. Popular music on 78 - medley

Mød mig på Cassiopeia [sound recording] : potpourri / [performers] Teddy Petersen og hans Orkester ; vokal Raquel Rastenni og Victor Cornelius med kor. - [S.l.] : Polyphon, 1951. - 1 sound disc (ca. 6 min.) : analogue, mono, 78 rpm ; 25 cm Music: Norman Andersen ; lyrics: Børge Myller
Contents: Flyv med ud -- Den allersidste dans -- Gå ud og gå en tur -- Løft din hat -- Det er lunt -- Titina
Polyphon: X 51426. - Matrix numbers: HDK 3024 to 3025

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4. Popular music on CD - compilation

Metronomeklassiker [sound recording]. - Kista : Metronome, p 1991. - 1 sound disc (CD, 61 min.) : digital, stereo Performers: see names in brackets in contents note
Previously issued: 1960-1978
Contents: 34:an / S. Hamblen, O. Adolphson (Per Myrberg) -- Lyckliga gatan / A. Celentano, L. Beretta, M. del Prete, B. Lindeborg (Anna-Lena Löfgren) -- Tunna skivor / H. Greenfield, J. Keller, Ben Hur (Siw Malmkvist) -- När morgonen gryr / G. Linderholm (Gösta Linderholm) -- Somliga går med trasiga skor / C. Vreeswijk (Cornelis Vreeswijk) -- Familjelycka / B. Staf (Bernt Staf) -- Gröna små äpplen / B. Russell, S. Anderson (Monica Zetterlund) -- Jag ger dig min morgon / T. Paxton, F. Åkerström (Fred Åkerström) -- Maria, många mil och år från här / J. Holm (John Holm) -- Om du nånsin kommer fram till Samarkand / T. Bergman (Lill Lindfors) -- Små, lätta moln / P. Rogefeldt (Pugh Rogefeldt) -- Noaks ark / S. Endrigo, B. Lindeborg (Svante Thureson) -- Kör långsamt / C. Parks, S. Anderson (Family Four) -- Jag vill tacka livet / V. Parra, B. Åhman (Arja Saijonmaa) -- Kliff / O. Magnell (Ola Magnell) -- Ingen kommer undan politiken / A. McGarrigle, P. Tatartcheff, O. Magnell (Marie Bergman) -- Lejonbruden / trad., arr. B. Dahlman (Maritza Horn)
Metronome: 9031-75955-2 Here both 1. composers/lyricists, and 2. performers, are given after the titles in the contents note; performers in brackets.

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5. Popular music on LP - different mixes

Hypnotized (I'm waiting) [sound recording] / Clubland. - Kista : Metronome, 1992. - 1 sound disc (ca. 43 min.) : analogue, 33 rpm, stereo ; 30 cm Words and music: Vito Ingrosso, Zemya Hamilton (unless otherwise stated)
Contents: Hypnotized : PKA full Philly 12" mix -- Hypnotized : PKA boomin' generation -- Hypnotized : the Soundsource seduction -- Hypnotized : bump me up mix -- Hypnotized : Kupper's timeless 12" -- Adventure in clubland : journey beyond dub / M. King, J. Ekholm
Eastwest: 4509-90713-0

The mix versions are given as subtitles in the contents note.

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6. Popular music on CD - collection

Frank Sinatra : the complete Reprise studio recordings / collection produced by Gregg Geller, Lee Herschberg, Joe McEwen and Ric Ross. - Germany : Reprise Records, p 1995. - 20 sound discs (CD) : stereo + 1 book (96 p. : ill. ; contained in a brass-bound trunk-style carrying case monogrammed "FAS") Limited edition (20,000 copies worldwide each numbered individually on a brass plaque): this copy is no.11901
Contains every master recorded by Frank Sinatra for Reprise Records between December 19, 1960 and June 6, 1988, with the exception of incomplete takes, chronologically sequenced according to the date on which the vocals were recorded
Includes 18 previously unreleased titles
Reprise: 9362-46013-2. - EAN 093624601326

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7. Talking book

Kalas med Pippi Långstrump [sound recording] / av Astrid Lindgren. - Stockholm : Gammafon, 1992. - 1 sound cassette : analogue. - (Astrid Lindgren läser själv) Reader: A. Lindgren
Music: Jan Johansson
Stories from Pippi Långstrump and Pippi Långstrump går ombord
ISBN 91-7712-519-3

Information on duration and mono/stereo is not stated on the item.

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8. Popular music on CD - multipart item

ABBA [sound recording] : 3 original CDs. - Bromma [Sweden] : Polar, c 1995. - 3 sound discs (CD) : digital, stereo Words and music: Benny Andersson, Björn Ulvaeus (unless otherwise stated)
Lyrics in booklet
Polydor: PY 801, 523 941-2Voulez-vous. - 1 sound disc (CD, ca. 42 min.)Previously released in 1979
Contents: As good as new -- Voulez-vous -- I have a dream -- Angel eyes -- The king has lost his crown -- Does your mother know -- If it wasn't for the nights -- Chiquitita -- Lovers (Live a little longer) -- Kisses of fire Super trouper. - 1 sound disc (CD, ca. 42 min.) Previously released in 1980
Contents: Super trouper -- The winner takes it all -- On and on and on -- Andante, andante -- Me and I -- Happy new year -- Our last summer -- The piper -- Lay all your love on me -- The way old friends doArrival. - 1 sound disc (CD, ca. 34 min.) Previously released in 1976
Contents: When I kissed the teacher -- Dancing queen / B. Andersson, S. Anderson, B. Ulvaeus -- My love, my life / B. Andersson, S. Anderson, B. Ulvaeus -- Dum dum diddle -- Knowing me, knowing you / B. Andersson, S. Anderson, B. Ulvaeus -- Money, money, money -- That's me / B. Andersson, S. Anderson, B. Ulvaeus -- Why did it have to be me -- Tiger -- Arrival

One record label but two catalogue numbers.

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9. Popular music on LP - multipart item without a collective title

Zwarre, Birre, Esse in heavy Hawaii [sound recording] / Frak. Enema Gejonte med lite Torbjörn / Enema & Gejonte. - Johannishus : Börft ; Örebro : Tiny Dog, p 1993. - 2 sound discs (ca. 80 min.) : analogue, 33 rpm, stereo ; 30 cm Words and music: Jan Svensson (disc 1) ; information unavailable (disc 2)
Discs recorded on one side only
Notes on sheet
Contents disc 1: Astrologo -- Distance to fun -- Where could I stay, I like to play (Where could I stay, I wanna play) -- Hosbypock -- This is the short story about how I did destroy my stereo -- Unordinary electro -- Safari in the deep mutant jungle -- Short flopp
Contents disc 2: Många fräna -- Anarchy i Närke -- Infinity -- Let's go out for lunch -- E4:an -- Leif och Kent i Stuttgart -- Sven längtar hem (från kollo) -- Fyra vänner -- Levnadsglada Jonas och livsnjutaren Kai -- Odensbacken -- 7:an är min buss
Börft: 068 (disc 1). - Tiny Dog: 004 (disc 2)A double-LP with two different groups.

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10. Classical music on cylinder

Vaagn af din slummer [sound recording] / [sung by] Vilhelm Herold. - [København] : Dansk Fonogram Magasin, 1903. - 1 sound cylinder (ca. 2 min.) : 160 rpm, coarse groove ; 5,4 cm x (4,7-4,4 cm) x 11 cm

From Bertrand de Born
Music: Peter Heise ; lyrics: Ernst Frederik Wilhelm von der Recke
Number on edge: 100537, 30174

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11. Classical music on 78 - 4 examples with supplied uniform titles

[Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.1 ; Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.2] / Brahms. - London : Parlophone, [193-?]. - 1 sound disc : analogue, 78 rpm ; 30 cm Eduard Erdmann, piano
Erdmann's recording of op.117 no.3, presumably recorded at the same session, appears on Parlophone E 11295 coupled with Beethoven's Bagatelle op.126 no.6
Parlophone: E 11287. - Matrix numbers: XE 7151, XE 7152

Item titles: Intermezzo op.117 no.1 ; Intermezzo op.117 no.2

[Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.1 ; Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.2] / Brahms. - London : His Master's Voice, [1947?]. - 1 sound disc : analogue, 78 rpm ; 30 cm Edwin Fischer, piano
Recorded: 1947-02-21
His Master's Voice: D.B. 6478. - Matrix numbers: 2EA.11660, 2EA. 11656

Item titles: Intermezzo in E Flat Major op. 117, no. 1 ; Intermezzo in B Flat Minor op. 117, no. 2

[Fantaisie impromptu, piano, op.66, C sharp minor] / Chopin. [Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.2] / Brahms. - London : His Master's Voice, [1953?]. - 1 sound disc : analogue, 78 rpm ; 30 cm Moura Lympany, piano
Recorded: 1952-11-03
His Master's Voice: C.4209. - Matrix numbers: 2EA 17019-3D, 17095-4D

Item titles: Fantaisie Impromptu in C Sharp Minor op. 66 (Posth.). Intermezzo In B Flat Minor op. 117 no. 2.

[Intermezzi, piano, op.117. No.2] ; [Rhapsodies, piano, op.79. No.2] / Brahms. - London : His Master's Voice, [1944?]. - 1 sound disc : analogue, 78 rpm ; 30 cm Solomon, piano
Recorded: 1944-04-20 at Abbey Road Studios, London
His Master's Voice: C.3406. - Matrix numbers: 2EA 10197 [oblong square], 2EA 10198 [oblong square]

Item titles: Intermezzo in B Flat Minor, op.117, no.2 ; Rhapsodie in G Minor, op. 79, no. 2.

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12. Pop video - live recording

Look sharp! [videorecording] : live / Roxette ; directed by Doug Freel. - Great Britain : Picture Music International [distributor] : Propaganda Films, EMI [production companies], 1989. - 1 videocassette (VHS, ca. 42 min.) : sd. (stereo), col. Words and music: Per Gessle (unless otherwise stated)
Contents: The look : studio -- Dressed for success -- Dance away / words and music: Marie Fredriksson, P. Gessle -- Dangerous -- Cry / words and music: M. Fredriksson, P. Gessle -- Paint -- Silver blue -- Listen to your heart / words and music: P. Gessle, Mats Persson -- The look : visible mix

A live recording + two studio recordings (first and last track).

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13. Opera video - stage performance

The ghosts of Versailles [videorecording] / music John Corigliano ; libretto William F. Hoffman ; production Colin Graham ; set and costume design John Conklin ; choreographer Debra Brown ; technical director Joseph Clark ; general director Joseph Volpe ; artistic director James Levine ; video director Brian Large ; audio producer Jay David Saks. - Germany : Deutsche Grammophon [distributor] ; U.S. : Metropolitan Opera Television [production company], 1993. - 1 videocassette (VHS, ca. 176 min.) : sd. (stereo), col. Stage performance
Teresa Stratas (Marie Antoinette), Marilyn Horne (Samira), Graham Clark (Bégearss), Gino Quilico (Figaro), Håkan Hagegård (Beaumarchais) ; Metropolitan Opera Chorus ; Metropolitan Opera Orchestra ; Metropolitan Opera Ballet ; James Levine, conductor
Notes in English, German and Italian in booklet

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14. Opera film

Aida [videorecording] / music: Giuseppe Verdi ; original libretto: Antonio Ghislanzoni ; produced by: Staffan Rydén ; directed by: Claes Fellbom ; revised text and screenplay: Claes Fellbom ; costume designer: Inger Pehrsson ; art director: Lotta Melanton ; choreography Ann-Charlotte Lindström. - Sweden : the Swedish Film Institute [distributor] : Isis Film, the Swedish Film Institute, Sveriges television TV2 and Filmhuset [production companies], [1993]. - 1 videocassette (VHS, ca. 122 min.) : sd. (stereo), col. Credits: Berndt Fritiof/Filmmixarna, sound/mix supervisor ; Hans Ewers, sound/music supervisor ; Jörgen Persson, director of photography ; et al.
Cast: Margareta Ridderstedt (Aida), Niklas Ek (Radames), Robert Grundin (Radames' voice) Ingrid Tobiasson (Amneris), Jan van der Schaaf (Amonasro), Alf Häggstam (Ramfis), Staffan Rydén (Pharao's spokesman), et al.
The Swedish Folkopera Orchestra and Choir ; Kerstin Nerbe, conductor
Filmed version of Verdis Aida, shot in Lanzarote, Spain. This production was originally staged by the Swedish Folkopera

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15. Opera video - highlights of stage performance

Highlights from Rigoletto [videorecording] : opera in three acts / by Francesco Maria Piave after Victor Hugo ; music by Giuseppe Verdi ; staged and directed by Jean-Pierre Ponnelle. - Great Britain : Decca [distributor] : Unitel [production company], 1994. - 1 videocassette (VHS, ca. 31 min.) : sd. (stereo), col. - (Great moments) Stage performance
Ingvar Wixell (Rigoletto), Edita Gruberova (Gilda), Luciano Pavarotti (Duca di Mantova Luciano), Victoria Vergara (Maddalena) ; Wiener Philharmoniker ; Ricardo Chailly, conductor

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16. Ethnographic field recordings on LP - host item and analytic entry

HOST ITEM

Aboriginal music from Australia [sound recording] / [recordings and commentary by Alice M. Moyle]. - [Berlin ; Venice] : Unesco, p 1977 (Netherlands : Philips). - 1 sound disc (44 min., 29 sec.) : analogue, 33 1/3 rpm ; 30 cm. - (Unesco collection : musical sources / edited for the International Music Council by the International Institute for Comparative Studies and Documentation, Berlin/Venice) Performances by members of the Djapu, Enindilyagawa, Garadjari, Nunggubyu, Walbiri, Wik-ngatara, Worora, and Wunambul language groups
Master dubbings by Patricia Naughton
Sleeve notes by Alice M. Moyle
Originally recorded between 1959 and 1969 at Aurukun, Darwin, Delissaville, Derby, Groote Eylandt, La Grange and Yuendumu
Variant source of origin of items: Caledon Bay (Side 2 track 4); Rose River Mission (Side 2 track 2)
Separations between the tracks on the disc are not clearly visible to the eye. Due to internal inconsistencies in the discs' accompanying documentation, the contents listing for Side 1 corresponds with the sleeve notes in preference to the label or the sleeve's title list
Contents: Side 1: 1-3. Rain dreaming ceremony : 3 excerpts -- 4. A re-singing of the Rain dreaming songs after the ceremony -- 5. Rain-making song -- 6. Balgan songs -- 7. Djabi song : the windmill of Wallanie Plains -- Side 2: 1. Wongga dance song series : selected items -- 2. Brolga bird clan songs -- 3. Women's wu-ungka songs -- 4. Morning star, Pigeon, and Rain songs -- 5. Stingray, Dolphin, Curlew, and Shark songs
Original reel recordings held by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, A.C.T.
Philips: 6586 034 (10). - Matrix nos.: 6586 034 1Y, 6586 034 2YAccess points

I. Title. II. Moyle, Alice M. III. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. IV. International Music Council. V. International Institute for Comparative Studies and Documentation. VI. Naughton, Patricia. VII. Unesco. VIII. Unesco collection : musical sources

ANALYTIC ENTRY FOR 7TH ITEM ON SIDE 1 OF LP

Djabi song : the windmill of Wallanie Plains / [sung by Andy]. - Duration: 44 sec. Sung in the Garagjari language
Details of performer and language from sleeve notes
Accompaniment: Scraping of notched stick (rasp)
Recorded at La Grange, W.A. in June 1968
In: Aboriginal music from Australia. - 1 disc. - Philips: 6586 034 (10) - Side 1 band 7 Access points
I. Title. II. Andy.

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17. Wildlife recording - unpublished compilation

[Stewart, David. Bird calls recordings. Diamantina Region. Tape no. M6]. - Recorded 1990. - Copyright: David Stewart. -1 sound tape (DAT) : digital
All recordings collected and edited by David Stewart for inclusion in the National Film and Sound Archive's collection
Recordings made using NFSA's equipment and tape stock. All descriptions of tracks on this recording based on the inventory supplied by David Stewart

Access points
I. Title. II. Stewart, David. 1. Wildlife recordings. 2. Bird calls.

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18. Oral history on tape reel - unpublished

Neilsen, A.B. [sound recording] : oral history interview / A.B. Neilsen, interviewee ; Ina Bertrand, interviewer. - 1 sound tape reel : analogue, 9,5 cm/sec ; 17 cm. - (Film Pioneers Project) Recorded in Nedlands, W.A. on 6 April 1978
Transcript held
Summary: Neilsen talks about his career as an exhibitor of films in his theatres; the development of sound on film and popular early films such as "The jazz singer", "The sentimental bloke", and "On our selection"; the dangers of fire from nitrate film and other issues dealing with theatres
Reference cassette held
Restricted access according to signed release form and related notes
Interview conducted as part of the Film Pioneers Project

Access points:
I. Title. II. Neilsen, A. B. (Arthur B.), b.1890. III. Bertrand, Ina, 1939- . 1. Nielsen, A. B. (Arthur B.), b.1890. 2. Film projectionists. 3. Film projection. 4. Silent films. 5. Sound motion pictures. 6. Theatres. 7. Oral histories.

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19. Oral history on cassette - unpublished

Angel Guerra, narrador canario [sound recording] / Antonio Cabrera Perera ; presenta, Hipólito Escolar Sobrino ; intervienen, Alfonso Armas Ayala y Alberto Navarro González. - 16 febrero 1983. - 1 cassette (64 min.) : estéreo Summary: Presentación de la tesis doctoral de Antonio Cabrera Perera, dirigida por Alberto Navarro Gonzalez, sobre el novelista canario Angel Guerra y la novela española de los primoros años de este siglo

Access points
I. Cabrera Perera, Antonio. II. Escolar Sobrino, Hipólito. III. Armas Ayala, Alfonso. IV. Navarro González, Alberto. 1. Novela española-S. XX. 2. Guerra, Angel.

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20. Spoken word on 78 - recitals

Elverhøj [sound recording] / H.C. Andersen [words] ; Vilhelm Andersen [recital] med paafølgende Kommentarer. E Bindstouw : den jenarmed Sældaat / St. St. Blicher [words] ; Lars Knudsen [recital]. - [S.l.] : Odeon, 1943. - 2 discs (ca. 12 min.) : analogue, mono, 78 rpm ; 30 cm. - (Dansk Dramatisk Diskotek. 1. Serie ; 3-6) Contents Elverhøj: Der løb saa vimse nogle Firben -- Og naar kommer de? -- Og hvad kan den næste datter?
Special recording for "Dansklærerforeningen" for use at school-teaching
Odeon: Catalogue number missing. - Matrix numbers: XXKpo 4293-1, XXKpo 4294-1, XXKpo 4295-1, XXKpo 4298-1

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21. Spoken word on 78 - language course

Fransk / indtalt af Paul Mealy. - [S.l.] : Polyphon, 1930. - 11 sound discs (ca. 66 min.) : analogue, mono, 78 rpm ; 25 cm. - (Norstedt-Richter's Sprogplader ; 1-11) French language course
Contents: Mønsterord (Les jours, Les mois, Les saisons, Les points cardinaux) -- L'ecole - Dans le magasin -- La maison - Anecdotes -- Au resaturant -- Le pantheon - Notre-Dame -- La place de la Concorde -- Aux Champs-Elysees -- Le voyage / indtalt af Frøken Philippe and Paul Mealy -- Le chien qui parle -- Augier et Dumas fils -- La ville / indtalt af Frøken Philippe and Paul Mealy -- Les brigands -- Les vieux, part 1-2 -- Une bonne lecon, part 1-2 / indtalt af Paul Mealy and E. Søderlindh -- Le nouveau -- Les chasseurs de casquettes -- La Marseillaise -- Mon dernier coup de fusil -- Une chasse aux canards, part 1-2 -- La Parure, part 1-2
Polyphon : K.S. 9530 to 9551. - Matrix numbers: 2892 BR to 2902 BR, 2911 BR to 2921 BR

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22. Dubbing - in-house compilation prepared for preservation and reference use

Jessie the flower o'Dunblane [sound recording] ; The dear little shamrock : [in-house compilation] / Marie Narelle, [soprano]. - Copied: 1991-11-26 Copied from Edison cylinder recordings. The first song is copied from Edison Blue Amberol: 2289, the second from Edison: 545
Reference copy available on DAT

Item 1: Preservation
Copied from: Original cylinders
Copied:1991-11-26
Copied by: Wanda Lazar
1 tape reel ; 38 cm/sec ; 25 cm
Source of acquisition: Copied from ScreenSound Australia owned item : ScreenSound Australia paid costs
Method of acquisition: ScreenSound Australia created item : copied in-house
Accessioned: 1991-11-26
Shelf-mark: AUD P 3211

Item 2: Reference
Copied from: Original cylinders
Copied:1991-11-26
Copied by: Wanda Lazar
1 cassette (DAT)
Reference copy made simultaneously with preservation copy
Source of acquisition: Copied from ScreenSound Australia owned item : ScreenSound Australia paid costs
Method of acquisition: ScreenSound Australia created item : copied in-house
Accessioned: 1991-11-26
Shelf-mark: AEK000398

Example of a newly created compilation dubbing. Here two copies of the same content were simultaneously copied onto different formats for preservation and reference purposes respectively. The separate item records provide the ability to describe in detail information pertaining to each copy. Here only the briefest information is given about each item.

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23. Radio music production on CD-R - multipart item

4. Sonderkonzert 1994/1995 / Richard Wagner, Richard Strauss, César Franck. - Saarbrücken : Saarländischer Rundfunk, 1995-05-21. - Copyright: SR, 1995. - 2 sound discs (CD-R, 78 min., 41 sec.) : digital (DDD), stereo. - (Konzertsaison 1994/95)

Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Saarbrücken ; Marcello Viotti, conductor ; Markus Brändle, producer ; Erich Heigold, sound engineer
Live recording from Saarbrücken (Germany), Kongreßhalle, 1995-05-05
Accompanying material: Programme brochure
Archive number: 39-00170

CD 1: 1. Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf der Wartburg : große romantische Oper in 3 Akten, WWV 70. Ouvertüre / Richard Wagner. - Copyright: Ricordi. - (15 min. 12 sec; 36 sec. applause at the end). - ISRC: DE-D24-95-021-01

2. 4 letzte Lieder für Sopran und Orchester, o.op. AV 150 / Richard Strauss. - Copyright: Boosey & Hawkes. - (21 min. 30 sec.)
Edith Mathis, soprano
Contents: Nr.1: Frühling, "In dämmrigen Grüften träumte ich lang" / Hermann Hesse (3 min 27 sec.) -- Nr.2: September, "Der Garten trauert" / Hermann Hesse (4 min 27 sec.) -- Nr.3: Beim Schlafengehen, "Nun der Tag mich müd gemacht" / Hermann Hesse (4 min 59 sec.) - Nr.4: Im Abendrot, "Wir sind durch Not und Freude gegangen" / Joseph von Eichendorff. (8 min. 11 sec.)
ISRC: DE-D24-95-021-02

CD 2: 3. Sinfonie d-moll / César Franck. - Copyright: Hamelle. - (41 min. 11 sec.). -
Contents: 1.Satz: Lento. Allegro non troppo (18 min 3 sec.) -- 2.Satz: Allegretto (10 min. 41 sec.) -- 3.Satz: Allegro non troppo (12 min. 14 sec.)
ISRC: DE-D24-95-021-03

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24. Audio file of radio production stored in a remote access system - analytic entry

Außenseiter von Weltruhm in der Modernen Galerie : Ausstellung Giorgio Morandi / Marie-Elisabeth Denzer, presenter ; Wolfgang Schmitt, interviewer ; Ernst Gerhard Güse, Direktor der Modernen Galerie Saarbrücken, interlocuter. - Saarbrücken : SR3 [broadcaster], 01.02.1993 (12.07-13.00). - Copyright: SR, 1993. - 4 min., 40 sec. : mono, data reduced. - (Region. Region am 01.02.1993) System requirements: Multimedia PC; Pentium processor; Windows NT; 8 MB RAM, SVGA graphic card
Mode of access: Broadcast company media network, client-server-system DIGAS
Bit rate reduction: ISO/MPEG, layer 2, 128 kb/sec
Summary: Ernst Gerhard Güse on the painter Morandi and his works, and on the concepts of the exhibition
In: SR DIGAS. - ID: 89-00110-001

Keywords:
Bildende Kunst; Malerei; Giorgio Morandi; Ausstellung; Saarland; Saarbrücken

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25. Radio music production on DAT - live recording

Johannes Brahms und seine Freunde (1) / Markus Brändle, producer ; Erich Heigold, sound engineer ; Gertrud Bastuck, cut. - Saarbrücken : SR2, 26.12.1988, (13.05-14.30). - Copyright: SR; GEMA; GVL. -1 sound tape (DAT, 84 min. 46 sec.) : digital (AAD), stereo, AES/EBU standard. - (Der musikalische Salon) Rolf Sudbrack, author and speaker ; Jewgenij Koroliov, Ljupka Hadzigeorgiev, piano
Recorded live 27.01.1988, Saarbrücken (Germany), Funkhaus Halberg (Großer Sendesaal)
Sampling frequency and quantisation: 48 kHz, 16 bit
Contents: Variationen über ein Thema von Robert Schumann, Es-dur. op.23 (Leise und innig) / Johannes Brahms (1 min 49 sec.) -- 4 Balladen op.10 (Nr.3 h-moll ; Nr.4 H-dur) / Johannes Brahms (4 min. 30 sec. ; 9 min. 36 sec.) -- 3 Romanzen op.21 (Nr.1 a-moll; Nr.2 F-dur) / Clara Schumann (5 min 28 sec.; 1 min.) -- 4 Klavierstücke op.2 (Nr.2 Kanon) / Albert Dietrich (4 min. 20 sec.) -- Sonate für Klavier zu 4 Händen g-moll, op.17 (2.Satz) / Hermann Goetz (5 min. 33 sec.) -- Intermezzo B-dur, op.76 Nr.4 / Johannes Brahms (2 min. 29 sec.) -- Capriccio d-moll, op.116 Nr.7 / Johannes Brahms (2 min. 10 sec.)
Copy from 2 tape reels, analogue : stereo ; 38 cm/sec, Telcom C4

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26. Published CD of previously broadcast radio production

Mµ s¬ q¤ Ã ad¤ ra car¬ qa saltanat cum¤ n : Icd¤ d wa-taqd¬ m [sound recording] = Die Musik einer alten Hochkultur : Das Sultanat Oman = The music of an ancient civilization : the Sultanate of Oman / Issam El-Mallah. - [Muscat : Omani Ministry of Information, producer, 1994]. - 2 sound discs (CD) + booklet (77 p.) Broadcast by the Südwestfunk, Baden-Baden, 1993-08-11 (22.05-23.30)
"The Omani Ministry of Information has decided to produce this programme in a compact disc as part of the activities of the 'year of the omani heritage' [1994]"-Introduction in accompanying booklet
Contents: 14 examples of traditional Omani music, with spoken commentary in German about each example. The listener may select to hear the music examples either with or without the spoken commentary
Text in booklet is printed in German, English and Arabic
CDs lack label and catalogue number

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27. Interactive multimedia on CD-ROM - Spanish

El impacto de la telefonía móvil en la sociedad española [archivo de ordenador] / [dirigido por] Amando de Miguel, Roberto-Luciano Barbeito ; realizado por el equipo sociológico Tábula-V ; diseño ; fotografía e ilustración Julio Castellano ; música Ensoñadores. - Versión Windows 95. - Madrid : Ericsson, D.L. 1997. - Copyright: Ericsson. - 1 CD-ROM : son., col. ; 12 cm Características del sistema: Procesador 486 o Pentium; 16 Mb de memoria RAM; Microsoft Windows 95; Lector de CD-ROM; adaptador gráfico SVGA (256 colores); Tarjeta de sonido compatible Sound Blaster
Tít. tomado de la etiqueta
D.L. B 42537-1997
ISBN 84-923185-1-1

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28. Interactive multimedia on CD-ROM - Swedish

Vikingar. - Stockholm : Expo media : Natur och kultur, c 1995. - 1 electronic optical disc (CD-ROM) : sd., col. System requirements: PC 486; 8 MB RAM; Windows 3.1; SVGA colour screen 640 x 480; ca. 1 KB hard disk; 16-bit stereo sound card adapted for Windows
In Swedish and English
Title from title screen
Credits: Hjalmar Olsson, script and production ; Marcus Edström, illustrations and design ; Ulf Söderberg, music and sound ; Peter Brandström, Henrik Edström, programming ; David Isitt, translation into English
Participants: Martin Berggren, Lena Nydahl, narrators ; David Isitt, Mavis von Proschwitz, narrators in English
Notes in English and Swedish in booklet

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29. Remote access electronic resource - host item

Danish audio history [electronic resource]. - Århus : Statsbiblioteket, 1998 System requirements: 486SX processor or higher; 8MB RAM (16MB recommended); Windows 3.11 or higher; hard disk with 8M free space; sound-blaster compatible sound card; (x)vga adapter; col. monitor; mouse
Mode of access: World Wide Web. URL: http://www.statsbiblioteket.dk/dlh
Contains 150 audio files with a duration from 0:11 to 8:00 min. of the following genres: Women's Lib in Denmark (9 exx.); Danish folksongs (10 exx.); Henning Haslund-Christensen's expeditions to Asia (9 exx.); Lauritz Melchior - a Danish singer (15 exx.); Denmark in the 1930s (28 exx.); King Christian X (13 exx.); Danish dialects, with a clickable map (24 exx.); Famous men and women (8 exx.); Danish politicians (13 exx.); Cirkusrevyen 1935 (7 exx.); and, every year in December: Christmas carols (14 exx.); furthermore information text and pictures of some of the labels

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30. Remote access electronic resource - host item and analytic entry

HOST ITEM

ALB:s jukebox. - Stockholm : Arkivet för ljud och bild, 1996 System requirements: PC Pentium; 8 MB RAM; Windows 95; Netscape Navigator 3; sound card; speakers
Mode of access: World Wide Web. URL: http://www.alb.se/jukebox
Contains 30 sec. extracts from 200 Swedish rock and pop recordings from the 1950s to the 1990s, with catalogue records, information texts about the recordings and the performers, and pictures of the front pages of the sleeves

ANALYTIC ENTRY

Cadillac : [30 sec. extract] / the Hep Stars. - Copyright: EMI Words and music: Don Gibson, Michael Brown, Graham Johnson, Ian Mallett, Vince Taylor
Performers: Sven Hedlund, vocals ; Janne Frisk, guitar ; Benny Andersson, organ ; Christer Petersson, drums ; Lennart Hegland, bass
Recorded: 1965
This extract from: Cadillac / the Hep Stars. - 1 sound disc (2 min., 35 sec.) : analogue, mono, 45 rpm ; 17 cm. - Olga: SO 09
In: ALB:s jukebox. - Identification number: 206850

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31. Kit - books + cassettes

Fábulas Océano [kit] / ilustraciones, María Pascual ; [textos, Víctor M. Armenteros, Jaime Rovira] ; producción y dirección [de las cassettes], Gerardo Domal, Francioli Vázquez ; efectos de audio, Sergio Bayard. - Barcelona : Océano, 1994. - Copyright: Océano. 2 v. (135 p.) . il. ; 27 cm
2 cassettes ; 3´8 mm
Narradora Janina Hidalgo ; Voces de personajes José María Iglesias
En una caja: 28 x 21 x 6 cm
D.L. B 19994-1994
ISBN 84-7764-877-8

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32. Kit - books + videos + CD-ROM

El baúl de los cuentos [kit] : las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en la educación infantil y en el primer ciclo de Educación Primaria / Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Programa de nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación. - Madrid : Centro de Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, D.L. 1996 8 v. : il. ; 22 x 22 cm + 9 transparencias.
2 videocassettes (VHS) : son., col. ; 13 mm
1 CD-ROM ; 12 cm
Contiene:
Libros: El baúl de los cuentos -- Guía de utilización de los programas Cuenta Cuentos -- Clic -- Fototouch -- Deluxe paint -- Works y Works para Windows -- Tecnología audiovisual -- Tecnología informática -- Transparencias del cuento "Juan sin Miedo"
Videocassettes: El cuento de los cuentos -- Tecnología audiovisual y tecnología informática
CD-ROM: Programas Cuenta Cuentos, Clic y ADIBU -- Aplicaciones informáticas de uso didáctico -- Prácticas para la autoformación del profesorado
D.L. M 8049-1996
NIPO 176-95-224-2
ISBN 84-369-2820-2

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33. Radio documentary - original studio copies and dubbing

STUDIO COPIES

The contemporary theatre / C. Fry. - London : BBC [broadcaster], 1950. - Copyright: BBC. - 2 sound discs (laquer, direct cut) : analogue, 33 1/3 rpm ; 41 cm Broadcast BBC Home Service 1950-02-17
Label stamped "29 Oct 1949" which is probably the date of recording
Packaged in original BBC tin storage box with central spindle, with: On parade / Band of the Royal Marines
Original BBC recording and programme reports enclosed, together with three copies of a type-written transcript of Fry's talk
"Christopher Fry... discusses the contemporary theatre from the point of view of the modern dramatist"-Opening announcement
BBC MX 14716 - 14717. - BBC R.P. ref. no.: BBC SLO 66525

The first set of numbers are not matrix numbers but BBC-specific numberings for their acetate discs. The last number is an example of a BBC "Recorded Programmes" number, usually additional to the MX number. The prefixes also denote a specific category, SLO meaning "slow speed (i.e. 33 1/3) London".

DUBBING

[The contemporary theatre / Christopher Fry]. - London : British Library, 1996. - Copyright: BBC. - 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec NSA dubbing by Tim Smith of NSA-owned BBC direct cut coarsegroove 41cm 33rpm discs mx 14716-14717, formerly SLO 66525 recorded 3E BH to AV1 on 1950-02-17
Dubbing duration: 19'15" plus identifying announcement.
NSA tape number: NP106992W

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34. Mechanical sounds

Industrial mechanical preserved (NSA recordings). Parham Steam and Vintage Vehicle Rally / [recorded by] Benet Bergonzi. - 1993. - Copyright: The British Library. - 10 sound tape reels : stereo Summary: Recordings of various historic machines made 1987-06-14 at Parham Park near Storrington, West Sussex (England). The venue was a large grass field full of rides, stalls and fairground tackle. The fine weather attracted a large crowd: there is therefore plenty of background noise accompanying these recordings
Photographs and Rally Programme retained with other collection documentation
Individual recordings are analysed separately
NSA archive number: C322/6/1-10
NSA playback number: T10961Y

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35. sound effects

[Sound effect. Steam-driven saw] Burrell 7 NHP "William II" (1926) / [recorded by] Benet Bergonzi. - 1993. - Duration: 14 min., 30 sec. Originally recorded 1987-06-14 on Nagra IV using 2 AKG 451 mics in single windshield Summary: Burrell traction engine driving a circular saw. Engine first heard ticking over, then logs are placed against saw and cut. A diesel wagon is heard very loud in the background. Woodman is heard steadying log with chocks and trimming it with axe. Very audible background noise from mechanical organ and distant compressor for bouncy castle
In: Industrial mechanical preserved (NSA recordings). Parham Steam and Vintage Vehicle Rally / [recorded by] Benet Bergonzi. - 1993. - Copyright: The British Library. - 10 sound tape reels : stereo. - Reel 1 cut 4 (at 4 min. 30 sec)
NSA C322/6/1-10
NSA T10961Y

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36. Ethnographic collection - multipart item
Note: The example commencing on the following page is for a multilevel entry and extends over several pages.

Here the unity of the collection is the project of the Recherche Unit (RCP) on the geographical area of the Aubrac during the year 1964. A total of 808 sound recorded items (on 87 tape reels) comprise the collection. Accompanying materials are also included.

The description of the collection as a whole forms the first level of the description.

This project was carried out during 3 expeditions. Each expedition comprises a group of recordings. The descriptions of the three groups of recordings from each expedition constitute the second level of description.

At the third level of the description the individual recorded items from an expedition are described.

RCP (Recherche Coopérative sur Programme) is a Research Unit which was set and sponsored by CNRS (Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique), France.

Inventory numbers. The numeric data in the inventory numbers which appear at the third level of description are made up of the following elements:
the year of recording (i.e. 64); the registration number for the year (i.e. 36) and the item number for the recorded item within the collection (i.e. 754). E.g.:64.36.10
64.36.754

BM (Bande magnétique=magnetic tape) numbers. Number to identify the particular original tape in the collection. In Level 3 this number appears above the entry for the first item on the tape. All in-house copies of the original tape contain the same content as the original from which they are copied. This number therefore provides a mnemonic to assist identification of all copies of the same original tape.

FIRST LEVEL (WHOLE COLLECTION)

[France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964 / Claudie Marcel-Dubois, Maguy Andral, Bernard Lortat-Jacob, collectors, interviewers]

87 sound tape reels (808 items) : 19 cm/sec and 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm

(France. Auvergne. RPC Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964)

Languages: French and Occitan. Most of the songs are sung in Occitan. Interviews are in French and Occitan (the interviewees mix both languages)

The CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) supervised and sponsored this project of the RCP (Recherche Coopérative sur Programme) Aubrac in 1964

Originally recorded with Nagra and UHER tape reel recorders (type Nagra)

Sound quality is excellent

Accompanying materials: Field collector's log, 400 still photographs, manuscript with maps showing the locations of the recorded performances (54 localities), sketches of the nomenclature of the cabrette (traditional bagpipe), French translations of some of Occitan language songs, transcriptions, and one video made in 1964 by Jean-Dominique Lajoux about the cabrette (duration unknown)

References: Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral, Musique & phénomènes paramusicaux. L'Aubrac, T.V. Ethnologie contemporaine, III, Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1975, pp.67-289, ill., mus. not., inserted disc

Part of the collection described in: RCP (Recherche Coopérative sur Programme), Georges-Henri Rivière, director. L'Aubrac : étude ethnologique, linguistique, agronomique et économique d' un établissement humain [Aubrac : ethnology, linguistic, agronomy, economic study of an human settlement] - Paris, Editions CNRS, 1970. - 3 vol:col. ill. ; 27 cm

Preservation, dubbing master, working duplicate and access copies made

Summary: An ethnographic field collection of sound recordings of folk and traditional music of Aubrac, a hilly region situated in the Massif Central, France, also kown as Auvergne. The collection comprises vocal and instrumental music as well as interviewes relating biographical information, traditional practices, personal experiences, and stories of living conditions and life in Aubrac. Accompanying documentation comprising manuscripts and still photographs, and a video on the cabrette (traditional bagpipe) are also included. The collection was formed during the three expeditions of project of the RCP Aubrac 1964. The 1st expedition was conducted during 21 - 29 May 1964 (139 items on 24 sound tape reels). The 2nd expedition was conducted during 22 Jun. - 2 Jul. 1964 (469 items on 41 sound tape reels). The 3rd expedition was conducted during 9 -14 Oct. 1964 (200 items on 22 sound tape reels)

Permission of the collectors is required to cite, quote, or reproduce

Reference copies on sound cassette are available for research at the Département de la Musique et de la Parole, Musée national des Arts et Traditions Populaires (Mnatp) with the permission of the repository

Original sound recordings and reference copies deposited at the Département de la Musique et de la Parole, Mnatp (previously Phonothèque du Mnatp) by Mrs Cl. Marcel- Dubois (Collection 64-36)

Additional field recordings from the same area were made in 1965 and 1966. These are the 4th expedition of the RCP Aubrac (which is named "l'Aubrac à Paris"), conducted during 23 Jan. - 19 Feb. 1965 (Collection 65-18); and the 5th expedition of the RCP Aubrac, conducted during 29 Mar. 1965 - 25 Oct. 1965 (Collection 65-19)

LEVEL 2 (1ST EXPEDITION)

[France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. 1st expedition:1964-05-21--1964-05-29 / Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral]
24 sound tape reels : 19 cm/sec and 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
The 1st expedition was conducted and recorded from 21 to 29 of May 1964 (139 items)
Permission of the collectors is required to cite, quote, or reproduce
Forms part of: [France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964]

LEVEL 3 (1ST EXPEDITION)

BM 1
1 Information auprès de l'informateur sur sa vie de Cantales = [Information on the informant's life and resident in the Cantal region] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.1

2 Informations biographiques = [Biographical information] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.2

3 Sur l'apprentissage à la cabrette = [How to learn to play the cabrette, a local bagpipe] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral.
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.3

4 Sur l'appellation des vaches = [How to call the cows] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.4

5 Sur la cabrette accompagnant la montée des troupeaux = [On the use of cabrette accompaniment to drive cattle to mountain pastures] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.5

6 Sur les différents pieds de la cabrette de l'informateur = [On the various feet of the informant's cabrette] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal. France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.6

7 Sur les anches = [About the reeds (of the cabrette)] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal. France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.7

8 Sur les fabricants de cabrette = [About the instrument makers of the cabrette] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.8

9 Mo bello anneto: valse: instrumental / Lucien Remise, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.9

10 Information sur la technique du 1/2 ton. [partie 1] = [About the semi-tone technical process (of the cabrette). Part 1] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.10

BM 2

1 Information sur la technique du 1/2 ton. [partie 2] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.11

2 Le rossignol = [The nightingale]: valse: instrumental / Lucien Remise, cabrette; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.12

3 Information sur la technique du 1/2 ton. [partie 3] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.13

4 Information sur la technique du 1/2 ton. [partie 4] / Lucien Remise, informant [voix d' homme parlée = 1 male spoken voice] ; interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 9,5 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.14

5 Les garçons de la montagne = [The boys of the mountain]: bourrée: instrumental / Lucien Remise, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and Maguy Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Saint-Urcize (Cantal) on May 21, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.15

etc.

LEVEL 2 (2ND EXPEDITION)

[France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. 2nd expedition: 1964-06-22--1964-07-02 / Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral, collectors, interviewers]
41 sound tape reels : 19cm/sec ; 12 cm.
The 2nd expedition was conducted and recorded from Jun. 22 to Jul. 2, 1964 (469 items)
Permission of the collectors is required to cite, quote, or reproduce
Forms part of: [France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964]

LEVEL 3 (2ND EXPEDITION)

BM 55
1 O bal a bor de l'aiga = [Là-bas au bord de l'eau] / Auguste Cayla, chant ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
Translation in French available
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Mommatton-Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.435

2 Information brève sur les concours de chant / Auguste Cayla, voix parlée [male spoken voice]: interviewed and recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral.
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Mommatton-Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.436

3 Fanton pouli / Auguste Cayla, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in Mommatton-Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.437

4 Réveillez-vous belle endormie / Jean Gral, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommatton-Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964.
Inventory nr: 64.36.438

5 La jambe torse = [The twisted leg]: instrumental / Joseph Chaliès, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm.
Recorded in St Symphorien de Thénières (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.439

6 La bourrée (dite " du Lot ") = [The so called bourrée of the Lot]: instrumental /
Joseph Chaliès, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in St Symphorien de Thénières (Aveyron) on Jun 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.440

7 Le juif errant = [The wandering jew]: valse: instrumental / Joseph Chaliès, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in St Symphorien de Thénières (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.441

8 Rossignolet de la marine: instrumental / Joseph Chaliès, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in St Symphorien de Thénières (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.442

9 Rossignolet de la marine: version chantée / Joseph Chaliès, [male singer] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois and M. Andral
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in St Symphorien de Thénières (Aveyron, France) on Jun. 30, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.443

etc.

LEVEL 2 (3RD EXPEDITION)

[France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. 3rd expedition: 1964-10-09--1964-10-14 / Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral and B. Lortat-Jacob, collectors, interviewers]
22 sound tape reels : 19cm/sec ; 12 cm
The 3rd expedition was conducted and recorded from 9 to 14 of Oct. 1964 (200 items)
Permission of the collectors is required to cite, quote, or reproduce
Forms part of: [France. Auvergne, RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964]

LEVEL 3 (3RD EXPEDITION)

BM 82
2 Gentille pastourelle = [Pretty shepherdress] / Jean Gral, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.748

3 Quand iou n'ère "pitchounella" / Jean Gral, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.749

4 Un jour jeune demoiselle = [One day young lady] / Auguste Cayla, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.750

5.Information sur la conduite des boeufs = [About leading the oxen] / Auguste Cayla, voix [male spoken voice] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.751

6 Chant sur un thème liturgique = [Song on a liturgical theme] / Auguste Cayla, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.752

7 Suon suon / Auguste Cayla, chant [male singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.753

8 Los campaniles de Millau ("suon-suon") = [The campaniles in Millau] / Maria Cayla, chant [female singing] ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois, M. Andral, B. Lortat-Jacob
On 1 sound tape reel : 19 cm/sec ; 12 cm
Recorded in Mommattan Laguiole (Aveyron, France) on Oct. 12, 1964
Inventory nr: 64.36.754

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37. Ethnographic recordings - analytic entries

Here two analytic examples from [France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964] are given. For comparison, the first example may be traced by its inventory number to its appearance in the previous multilevel example

Les garçons de la montagne: bourrée / Remise Lucien, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel-Dubois et M. Andral
Duration: 1 min., 34 sec.
(France. Auvergne. RPC Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964. Expedition 1)
Recorded in St-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Reference copy available
Inventory no.: 64.36.15
In: [France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964 / Claudie Marcel-Dubois, Maguy Andral and Bernard Lortat-Jacob, collectors, interviewers]. - 87 sound tape reels. - Unpublished. - Reel 2 cut 5
In: 64.36 BM 2. - Preservation copy. - 1 sound tape reel. - Cut 5
In: 64.36 BM 2. - Dubbing copy. - 1 sound tape reel. - Cut 5
In: C 64.36 BM 2. - Reference copy. - 1 sound cassette. - Side 1 cut 5

En passant par le bois: regret / Remise Lucien, cabrette ; recorded by Cl. Marcel- Dubois et M. Andral
Duration: 2 min., 39 sec.
(France. Auvergne. RPC Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964. Expedition 1)
Recorded in St-Urcize (Cantal, France) on May 21, 1964
Reference copy available
Inventory nr: 64.36.17
In: [France. Auvergne. RCP Aubrac. Ethnographic collection. 1964 / Claudie Marcel-Dubois, Maguy Andral and Bernard Lortat-Jacob, collectors, interviewers. 1964]. - 87 sound tape reels. - Unpublished. - Reel 2, cut 7
In: 64.36 BM 2. - Preservation copy. - 1 sound tape reel. - Cut 7
In: 64.36 BM 2. - Dubbing copy. - 1 sound tape reel. - Cut 7
In: C 64.36 BM 2. - Reference copy. - 1 sound cassette. - Side 1 cut 7

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Appendix C. Terms for describing the physical condition of sound recordings

Contents:

C.1. Introduction
C.2.Terms to describe common conditions
C.2.1. Discs and cylinders
C.2.2. Tapes
C.2.3. Wire recordings
C.3 Extent of condition

 

C.1. IntroductionThe following is a brief list of English language terms and definitions relating to common condition problems of recorded sound discs and magnetic tapes. It is offered to assist with describing the condition of sound recordings in Area 7 (see 7.B.15).

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C.2. Terms to describe common conditions

C.2.1. Discs and cylinders

Note that some of the terms in this section, especially where shellac discs are indicated, are also applicable to cylinder recordings.

Bleeding. Inks or dyes on the label of the disc are running.

Blister. Often caused by entrapped steam or air inclusion at the time the pressing was made. Causes clicks or other transient noise during playback.

Broken. The disc has broken into distinct parts (generally applies to shellac or glass-based lacquer discs, or to cylinders).

Centre damage or fault. The centre hole is chipped or otherwise unfit for centering the disc.

Chemical residue. Residue from a cleaning fluid or other chemical is on the surface of the disc.

Chinagraph mark. The grooved surface of the disc has chinagraph crayon markings.

Chip. A small piece is missing, usually from the edge of a shellac disc or cylinder.

Corrosion. The metal substrate of a lacquer disc or of a metal part (e.g. stamper, mother) displays rust or some other form of corrosion.

Cracked or Cracking. A break without physical separation (generally applies to shellac discs and cylinders only)

Crazing. Thin fracture lines occurring on the surface of a lacquer disc caused by shrinkage of the lacquer with respect to the substrate.

Darkening. Colour change in disc. May be caused by ageing or by temperature problems at the time the disc was pressed.

Dust or Dirt (Dirty/Oily). Dust, dirt or oiliness on the surface of the disc, usually resulting from poor storage conditions and handling.

Foreign matter. Usually describes material (cardboard, etc.) which has become adhered to or embedded in the surface of vinyl or shellac discs or cylinders following manufacture (as opposed to inclusion).

Gouge. Large, deep scratches. This was sometimes done deliberately for contractual and copyright reasons to prevent further replay.

Inclusions. Foreign matter (e.g. small fibre, or grain of sand or mineral) included in the material from which the disc or cylinder is made. If at the surface of the carrier, it may be visible to the eye, and may also fall out and leave a cavity. If below the surface, it may manifest as a lump or blister. May or may not affect playback.

Label damage. The label is worn away, eaten by insects, or similarly affected.

Loose pieces (Flaking). Pieces of lacquer have partially come away from the substrate of a lacquer disc.

Marks (Marked). Marks such as fingerprints and scuffs occurring on the grooved surface.

Missing pieces. Denotes shellac or lacquer discs with missing pieces, which, as a result cannot be consolidated.

Misstracking (Repeating or skipping grooves). The stylus or needle repeats or skips a groove unless a sideways force is applied at the right time during playback. Usually caused by a breakdown in groove wall, or a gouge.

Mould (Mouldy). Usually takes the form of white or grey patches on the surface, with a characteristic structure visible under low power magnification. Exacerbated by high humidity or by contact with organic material.

Needle dig. A very localised gouge due to a dropped soundbox with needle.

Needle run. Curved scratch due to inappropriate handling of the soundbox causing multiple ticks over the whole playing surface.

Orange peel effect. A grainy or textured surface caused by the pressing being too hot when made, or heat applied to it afterwards. Can result in an increase in background noise.

Out-of-round. The circular section in a cylinder is eccentric, elliptic, or not round in some other way. It may give a 'wow' effect to the sound during playback.

Peeling. Failure of the bonding between the substrate and the lacquer layer. Results in large sections of the surface, or sometimes the entire face, peeling away from the substrate of the lacquer disc.

Scratches (Scratched). Grooves scored with narrow lines. The result of poor handling.

Stitching. A pattern resembling a series of small dashes or stitches running along the grooves of a disc caused by wear from a stylus with insufficient compliance or excess tracking weight on more heavily modulated, low-frequency sections.

Warp. Alteration in disc surface shape (usually along several planes), causing the stylus to jump when the disc is played. Due to heat and/or uneven physical pressure on the disc.

Waxy exudate. A waxy substance exuding from the surface of the disc. May be caused by a reaction between plasticisers in lacquer discs, and the packaging. Some shellac discs had excess or unstable wax in the binder which leaves a 'bloom' on the disc's surface. Often exacerbated by storage conditions.

Wear (Worn). Worn groove walls, caused by stress of overuse, or replay with worn or inappropriate stylus. Often not easily seen with the naked eye, but appears as an overall dullness or grey grooves. It is more likely to occur during loud passages, and results in increased surface noise and decreased high frequency response. In some sound and audiovisual archives this is scaled from 1 (brand new, perfect copy) to 6 (looks dreadful but still playable) (see also C.3).

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C.2.2. Tapes

Backcoat shedding. Backcoat particles coming away from the substrate and accumulating on surfaces in contact with the back of the tape. Apart from the loss of functionality of the backcoat itself, loose debris can deposit on the playing surface of the adjacent layer of the tape, impairing playback quality (as opposed to magnetic coating shedding or magnetic coating lift).

Bleeding. Inks or dyes on the surface or writing on the backcoat, seeping through the tape layer.

Blocking. Whole blocks of adjacent layers of tape have shifted sideways relative to the rest of the tape pack. Usually the result of horizontal storage, transport or rough handling. Blocking can result in damage to the edges of the tape and localised stress where lateral movement has occurred.

Brittleness. Tape breaks easily. Cupping and curvature may also be present.

Cinching. The rippling of tape layers when bunched up from pack slippage or uneven tension. Cinching can permanently deform the substrate, resulting in rapid, cyclical fluctuations of sound level, as the creased tape passes across the playback heads.

Cupping. Curvature across the tape's surface, rather than along its length. Due to the substrate and recording layers having different rates of shrinkage.

Curvature. Tape has a tendency to stay rolled up. Modern PET based tapes have more of a tendency to 'remember' the shape in which they are packed and to flow or deform plastically in response to pressures and stresses within the pack.

Damaged reel (or cassette or cartridge casing). The hub, flange or spool of a tape reel or the casing of a cassette or casing is damaged. This may cause damage to the tape if it touches the reel or casing during playback, re-wind, fast forward, or even when in storage (where clamp indents or clip impressions may occur). Note that the flange or casing should never touch the tape.

Dust or Dirt (Dirty/Oily). Dust, dirt or oiliness on the surface of the tape, usually resulting from poor storage conditions and handling.

Edge damage. Edge of tape is not straight or not flat. This can cause dropouts, reduced output level, or a random shift in the stereo image of the recording.

Embossing. Physical damage to a tape caused by foreign matter that has become embedded within the tape pack, or by deformities in the hub.

Gummy deposit. Glue-like substance on the tape. It accumulates on the heads and guides of the playback machine when the tape is played.

Hydrolysis. Breakdown of the binders in the tape due to its reaction with moisture. Any shedding, sticking, squealing or residue may be a sign of hydrolysis.

Interlayer adhesion. The surface of one layer of tape is sticking to the back of the succeeding layer.

Kink. A crease on a layer of tape.

Leafing. Single layers of tape are protruding from the tape pack. Usually this is the result of spooling too quickly for the tension/alignment of the transport, and for the characteristics of the tape, causing momentary entrapment of air between layers. Leafing may occur individually or in groups, and exposes tape edges to potential damage.

Loose wind. Individual layers of tape are loosely wound on the tape pack. This is due to lack of fastening of the end of the tape. It may cause slippage of the tape pack on playing, and lead to cinching.

Magnetic coating lift. Coating layer separates from the substrate in sheets, indicating a failure of adhesion to the substrate (as opposed to backcoat shedding).

Magnetic coating shedding. Magnetic coating particles coming away from the tape substrate and depositing on heads and guides of playback machine. Due to a loss of cohesion (as opposed to backcoat shedding).

Magnetic losses. The tape has been partially or fully demagnetised or suffered from a loss of signal due to deterioration of the magnetic coating. (E.g. a section of the tape has been accidentally exposed to a bulk eraser, or magnetic particles may have physically deteriorated, resulting in a weaker signal).

Manufacturing surface defect. Includes partial lack of coating, foreign inclusions, variations in width, edge finish or thickness, etc.

Mould (Mouldy). Usually takes the form of white or grey patches on the surface, with a characteristic structure visible under low-power magnification. Exacerbated by high humidity or contact with organic material.

Scouring. Fine scratches on the surface of a tape usually caused by stationary guides or rough tape heads.

Splice. Small piece of special adhesive tape used to join two pieces of recorded material to form a single piece.

Splice, dry (Dry splice). Adhesive on splice is dry, or the splice is brittle. It results in drop-out of sound at the splice and on the adjacent tape layers where the adhesive has left a deposit. A dry splice may come away during playback.

Splice, sticky (Sticky splice). Adhesive from the splice sticks adjacent layers of tape together and can cause information drop-outs where the adhesive has left a deposit.

Spoking. Radial lines or spokes appearing in a tape pack, caused by adjacent layers of tape suffering similar deformation(s).

Squealing. High pitched noise caused by bowing action of tape on heads. May result from hydrolysis and/or loss of lubricants. May be accompanied by stiction.

Stiction. Tape sticks to heads and guides on the playback machine, and will not spool or play.

Stretch. Tape is deformed by stretching, and is usually elongated, narrowed and cupped.

Vinegar syndrome. Technically, de-acetylation of cellulose acetate substrates which may produce acetic acid as a by-product, and gives rise to the characteristic vinegar odour. May be accompanied by brown or white crystals on the tape pack.

Windowing (Windows). Deformation of the layers of tape within the tape pack to the extent where light can be seen through it.

Wrinkle. Multiple creases in the tape.

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C.2.3. Wire recordings

Corrosion. Occurring usually as rust with some wire recordings.

Wire knots. When wire recordings break away, the broken ends may be tied together. This tie forms a knot.

Wire tangles. Tangled recording wire. The thickness of fuse wire, recording wire tangles easily when it is unspooled.

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C.3. Extent of condition

It is also useful to give some indication of the extent to which the recorded sound item is physically affected by the condition. A simple or elaborate rating system may be developed which is appropriate to the requirements of the archive or cataloguing agency. For example, terms which could be applied in a simple rating of the extent of each condition would be: Slight, Medium or Extensive.

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Appendix D. Glossary

Access copy (Reference copy). A restored copy of an item, or a clone, imitation or duplicate copy of an item which is available for audition and/or viewing purposes. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Expanded definition for "Reference copy"
See also Duping copy; Preservation copy (Archive copy).

Accompanying material. Any material accompanying the main part(s) of the item being described, and intended to be used with it. ISBD (NBM)

Acetate disc.
See Lacquer disc.

AES. Acronym for Audio Engineering Society.

Alternative title (as part of the Title proper). The second part of a title proper that consists of two parts, each of which is a title. Either the parts are joined by the word or (or its equivalent in another language or script), or the alternative title is written within parentheses. Partly from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Analogue recording. 1. In the broadest sense, a method of recording in which some characteristic of the record current, such as amplitude or frequency, is continuously varied in a manner analogous to the variations of the original signal. 2. A logging of an event by one of various methods of capturing and storing a continuous replica of the source sound pattern by tracing an analogous pattern into another medium. The most commonly used storage methods have been: engraved or embossed modulated grooves in a disc; magnetic particle patterns in tape; optical patterns in film. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Analytic cataloguing record/Analytic entry. Discrete bibliographic record for a part or section of content contained on a physical item, e.g. a single track on a recorded sound album. Enables the catalogue to provide detailed description for each part regardless of the number of parts contained on the item.
See also Host item record; Multilevel description.

Archive.
1. Non-current records preserved, with or without selection, by those responsible for their creation or by their successors in function for their own use or by an appropriate archives because of their archival value.
2. An institution responsible for the acquisition, preservation, and communication of archives; also called archival agency; archive(s) service; record office. Archives 1. and 2. are, also, called after the type of institution whose records they acquire, e.g. national, college/university, etc.
3. The building or part of a building in which non-current records are preserved and made available for consultation; also called archive(s) repository; archival depository. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Archive copy.
See Preservation copy.

Audio file. Digital representation of a sound recording stored as data.

Audiovisual item. Any recorded sound, moving or still image item.

AV pack.
See Kit.

Betacam SP. A professional analogue video recording format using component coding whose recording medium is a ½-inch oxide tape housed in a cassette. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Betamax. A trademark name for a Sony ½-inch videocassette format intended for home use. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Bibliographic description. The term bibliographic is applied here to mean a set of bibliographic data recording and identifying an item regardless of the medium or format of the item. The more specific terms such as discographic, filmographic, etc., are implied as appropriate through the use of the term bibliographic in The IASA Cataloguing Rules Based on FIAF

Bit rate reduction. The process of reducing the rate at which data flows from a source to a destination (e.g. MPEG).

Brand name (sound recording).
See Label name (sound recording).

Broadcast. To transmit via an electronic signal via radio or television; also known as radiocast for radio and telecast for television. In the context of The IASA Cataloguing Rules broadcasting is recognised as a form of publication. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Broadcast item. Includes sound recordings, films, kines or videos: a) prepared as the source for a broadcast; b) made by a radio or television station at the time of transmission; c) audiovisual recording of a received radio broadcast or television transmission. An item that has been used as an insert during a radio broadcast or television transmission (e.g. published sound recording or video) is not a broadcast item unless it was specifically prepared as the source for a broadcast. However, a recording that was made by a radio or television station at the time of transmission and that includes such inserts is a broadcast item. Likewise, an audio visual recording of a received radio broadcast or television transmission (i.e. off-air recording) with or without such inserts is also a broadcast item. Definition based on RAD p8-10
See also Published item; Unpublished item.

Carrier. The physical package (i.e. disc, film, tape, etc.), in or on which the audiovisual data or signal is fixed or recorded. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Cartridge. A single core container (a double core container is called a cassette) enclosing audiovisual media (i.e. optical, grooved, or magnetic discs, tape, film) using, for tape/film media, a single spool, endless-loop configuration. Used for insertion of the medium into recorders, reader/printers and retrieval devices, the media requiring no threading or rewinding. Most audio tape cartridges contain two-channel, 8-track stereo recordings. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Cassette. An enclosed two-hub, core, or reel container (a single core is called a cartridge) enclosing film/tape/wire media with each end of the contained media being attached to one or the other hub, core, or reel. Common forms today include the compact audio cassette (introduced in 1964), the audio mini-cassette, and videocassettes. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Catalogue number (sound recording). Also known as order number or issue number. 1. The number(s), letter(s), and/or other symbols assigned to a publication by the publisher to establish a unique control of a particular publication. 2. The number, usually different from the matrix- or master-number(s), assigned by the publisher under which an item appears listed in catalogues, leaflets, and other publicity material issued by the company owning the rights to the recording. Usually common to all parts of the published item, appearing generally on each part of a multipart package as well as on the container for the multiple parts. This number may change when, or if, one or more of the parts are re-published again at a later date. Recordings have from time to time been published with the same catalogue number, both inadvertently and deliberately. Dubbings are sometimes assigned the original catalogue number, but frequently with a variant prefix or suffix. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition of "Issue number"

CD.
See Compact disc.

CD-Extra.
See Compact disc-extra.

CD-I.
See Compact disc-interactive.

CD-R. Acronym for Compact Disc-Recordable.

CD-ROM.See Compact disc-read only memory.

CD-single. A CD audio recording of a single, usually popular, music selection. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Cms, Cm/sec (centimetres per second). The measurement of the speed at which tape or wire recording passes through a tape or wire player. Tape speeds are based on the early standard of 30 ips (76 cm/sec). Successive improvements in tapes, head, and other equipment have permitted reductions to 15 ips (38 cm/sec) and 7½ ips (19 cm/sec) for professional tapes, and 3¾ ips (9,5 cm/sec) and 1 7/8 ips (4,75 cm/sec) for home use. In many areas ips are being replaced by the equivalent metric figures (i.e. cms or cm/sec). Extrapolated from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Ips (inches per second).

Coarse groove. Term used to describe the channel size prevalent in 2-minute cylinders, and most shellac recordings often generically called 78 rpm discs, as opposed to the microgroove used in 33 1/3 rpm LP sound recordings. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

See also Groove; Microgroove.

Collection. 1. In archival description, an artificial accumulation of documents of any provenance brought together on the basis of some common characteristic, e.g. way of acquisition, subject, language, medium, type of document, name of collector, which may be treated for descriptive purposes as a unit under a common title. 2. In a published compilation of recordings in an album, the contents are sometimes referred to as a collection. 3. The holdings of a collecting body such as library or archive which is developed, accessioned, catalogued, preserved, stored and made accessible is also known as a collection. First definition based on the RAD

Commercial sponsor (film, television and radio). A person or corporate body who helps finance the production or broadcast of a work or programme without control over the contents of the programme. Such sponsorship is normally done in order to advertise a product or for the purposes of public relations, and usually also involves merely the purchase of a short time slot in which to present a commercial or advertisement. FIAF
See also Sponsor (film, television and radio).

Compact disc (CD). A recording medium, introduced commercially in 1983, consisting of a 12 cm/4.72-inch disc, made principally of plastic coated with a reflective metal, commonly aluminium in commercial discs, and a protective layer of lacquer. Presently used primarily for audio and CD-ROM recordings. Normally recorded and played on one side only at this time, the medium can yield up to 78 minutes of audio signal. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Compact disc-extra (CD-Extra). Format developed in the mid-1990s by Philips, Sony and Microsoft. Designed either for playback of music only with access to the audio session only on CD audio playback equipment, or for simultaneous access to audio titles and complementary multimedia applications (lyrics, images, etc.) where a CD-Extra compatible CD-ROM drive is installed on a computer system.

Compact disc-interactive (CD-I). A compact disc format developed by Philips and Sony that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-I player. ISBD (ER)

Compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM). A compact disc format that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-ROM player. ISBD (ER)

Compression. Reduction of the size of a fixed file. Compression may be ‘lossless’ where redundant information is removed in a way that allows reconstruction to the original state (e.g. a Winzip file); or ‘lossy’ where data or information which is considered to be less important or less perceptable is removed, and may not be completely or accurately reinstated (e.g. JPEG compression of fixed image files).

Computer file.
See Electronic resource; Interactive multimedia.

Copy. A duplication of a document, which may, itself, be either an original or a copy; the duplicate may be prepared simultaneously with or separately from the creation of the item copied; the copy is usually identified by function or by method of creation, e.g. preservation transfer. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Copyright. The right vested by law in the creator of a document, his/her/their heirs or assignees to publish or reproduce it or to authorise publication or reproduction thereof. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also P notice.

Cylinder (sound recording). The audio recording format invented and patented by Thomas Edison in 1877/78. Originally made of a sheet of tin foil wrapped around grooved metal (the original signal was embossed into the foil), then wax, and later celluloid. Playing time lasted from two to four-plus minutes depending on the playback speed and threads or grooves per inch. Most makes of cylinders had grooves which threaded left-handed when looked at from the heavier end of the cylinder, and were tracked from left to right when viewed from the front of the record/playback machine. The inside was usually ribbed and lightly tapered to grip the mandrel, and the general dimensions of the standard cylinder were 4½-inches in length, 2¼-inches in external diameter, and a tapered internal diameter from 1 5/8- to 1¾-inches. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

DAT.
See Digital audio tape.

Date of broadcast. The date that a radio or television programme is broadcast.

Date of creation. For unpublished items, the date that the work or event was originally created or captured in some material form (e.g. date(s) of writing an original manuscript, date(s) that sound was originally recorded).
See also Date of recording.

Date of legal deposit. Date that an item is deposited by law in a library or archive.

Date of publication, release, issue. Date, or more often year, that an item is published.

Date of recording. Date of recording session, or date the sound was originally recorded regardless of whether or not it is subsequently published or broadcast. Note that a recording session may extend beyond a single date (e.g. a music session may continue beyond midnight, or a lengthy interview may be conducted over several separate dates).
See also Date of creation.

DCC.
See Digital compact cassette.

Dependent title. A title which by itself is insufficient to identify an item and which requires the addition of the common title, or the title of the main item or the title of the main series. Examples are section title, some supplement titles and some titles of subseries. ISBD (NBM)

Digital audio tape (DAT). A magnetic tape format which can be digitally encoded with sound from a source using the digital recording process and played back on a machine capable of reading or decoding the tape. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Digital compact cassette (DCC). A digital format parallel to the analogue compact cassette, developed by Philips. No longer successful on the market.

Digital optical recording. A capturing of data through the digital process onto a disc or other optical media which has the data fixed as a series of pits that are recorded and read by a focused laser beam. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Digital S. A professional digital format developed by JVC for storage of video signals, based on VHS, with a data rate of 50 Mbit/sec. Also known as SMPTE standard D-9.

Digital versatile disc (DVD). A development of the CD, in particular the CD-I for the storage of film or video in data-reduced format. May also be used for the storage of audio signals.

Digital video (DV). A consumer cassette format for storage of digital, data-reduced audio and video signals (ca. 20 Mbit/sec.). The format is a standard worldwide.

Digital video cassette professional (DVCPro). A professional development of the DV format. Two formats, both supported by Panasonic and Philips, are on the market: DVCPro 25 (25 Mbit/sec) and DVCPro 50 (50Mbit/sec).

Direct metal mastering (DMM). An alternative LP or CD mastering process wherein the recording is made directly onto the metal part. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Master.

Disc. A flat, circular object used as a mechanical, optical or magnetic storage medium. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Disk.

Disc (sound recording). A sound recording on a thin, flat circular object, usually made of shellac, vinyl, or various laminates. The signal may be either analogue or digital, and recorded/played using acoustical, electrical, magnetic or optical technology. From the RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition of "Audio disc"

Disk (electronic resource). A round magnetic device for storing information and programmes accessible by computer; may be either a rigid platter (hard disk) or a sheet of flexible plastic (floppy disk or diskette). The disk base is coated with a magnetizable material on which data can be recorded or stored along concentric tracks as small magnetic areas forming patterns of binary digits or bits. Information is written onto the disk, and read from it in a disk drive, by read/write heads mounted on arms which move rapidly across the disk. Disks are available in several diameters, the most popular being the 3,5-inch, (and formerly the 5,25-inch). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Disc (sound recording).

Document. 1. A combination of a medium and the information recorded on it or in it, which may be used as evidence or for consultation. 2. A single archival record or item. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Dolby. A family of linear noise reduction audio recording and playback circuits used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and to mute unwanted audio data. The various systems of the family are incompatible, thus a Dolby A encoded recording can only be satisfactorily replayed by decoding it with a Dolby A decoder. The family includes Dolby A, Dolby B, Dolby C, Dolby Hx pro and Dolby SR. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Duping copy. Item from which other copies for further use are generated.
See also Access copy (Reference copy); Master; Master disc; Master tape; Metal master; Preservation copy (Archive copy).

DV.
See Digital video.

DVCPro.
See Digital video cassette professional.

DVD.
See Digital versatile disc.

EBU. Acronym for European Broadcast Union.

Edition. All the copies of an item produced from substantially the same master copy and published or issued by a particular publishing agency or group of agencies. Provided that these conditions are fulfilled, a change in identity of the distributor of the item does not constitute a change of edition. For sound recordings, all the copies of an item produced from the same fixing of the sound from the same takes. Note, however that some reissues are different publications. Developed from ISBD (NBM)

Edition statement. An edition statement is a word or phrase, or a group of characters indicating that an item belongs to a particular edition, issue, release, transmission, version or variation. The edition statement may include statement of responsibility and parallel and additional edition statements. Developed from ISBD (NBM)

Electronic resource. Material (data and/or programme(s)) encoded for manipulation by computer. Includes materials that may require the use of a peripheral (e.g. a CD-ROM player) attached to a computer, and online service(s) (e.g. bulletin boards, discussion groups/lists, world wide web sites). ISBD (ER)
See also Interactive multimedia.

Element. A word or phrase, or group of characters representing a distinct unit of bibliographic information and forming part of an area of the bibliographic description. ISBD (NBM)

Emphasis. The increasing of signal-to-noise ratio of an audio recording by boosting the high frequencies during recording and de-emphasing or correspondingly attenuating them during playback. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

EP.
See Extended play.

Exabyte. A professional digital cassette format for storage of data.

Expression. The specific intellectual or artistic form that a work takes each time it is realised. IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Work; Manifestation; Item; Realisation.

Extended play (EP). A recorded sound disc with a 17,5 cm diameter (single), replayed at 33 1/3 rpm or 45 rpm, and giving extended playing time of up to 8 minutes on each side.

Father. In disc manufacturing, a recording mould formed by nickel plating the master disc. The resulting metal part can be used for pressing copies (i.e. it becomes the stamper) or as the basis for production of one or more mothers to produce multiple stampers for the larger quantity production. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Field recording. Normally the by-product of research by a collector who travels into the field for the purpose of documenting some aspect of life in that location. The term commonly applies to sound recordings. Other by-products of field research may include, film or video footage, still photographs, and related documentation.

File format. The standard to which data is arranged in an electronic resource file.

Film (moving image). A series of still images collected onto a flexible and transparent piece of film so that they can be projected in a rapid sequence so as to give the illusion of motion. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994 Extract from definition of "Motion pictures"
See also Sound track film.

Fixing of the sound. The process involved in determining the version that is published as a recording. It may result from the mix of several takes. ISBD (NBM)

Fonds. The whole of the documents, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or corporate body in the course of that creator’s activities or functions. In archival description the fonds is the highest level of description in a multilevel description. A fonds may contain two or more separately acquired consignments of material. Similarly an acquired consignment of material may contain more than one fonds. Based on the RAD

Format. In its widest sense, a particular physical presentation of an item. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

General material designation. A term indicating, broadly, the class of material to which an item belongs. ISBD (NBM)

Groove. In audiovisual media, the channel cut, embossed, or pressed into a recording medium (i.e. cylinder, disc, film) which carries the encoded signal. Such a groove may be blank (unmodulated) or recorded (modulated), or a combination of both. A cut recording contains only one groove cut, or embossed, spirally from the beginning to the end of the item, but it is more common to refer to this groove in the plural: grooves. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Coarse groove; Microgroove.

Hi8 (High 8).
See Video High 8.

Host item record. Catalogue record describing an item with contents of more than one part, e.g. a recorded sound album containing several individual tracks, and to which discrete catalogue records for each part analysed are linked.
See also Analytic record; Multilevel description.

Interactive multimedia. Media residing in one or more physical carriers (e.g. a computer optical disc or videodisc) or in computer networks or systems. Interactive multimedia should exhibit the following two characteristics: 1. user-controlled, nonlinear navigation using computer technology, and 2. the combination of two or more media (sound, text, graphics, animation, and video) that the user manipulates to control the order and/or nature the presentation. ISBD (ER)
See also Electronic resource.

International Standard AudioVisual Number (ISAN). New international system in development by the International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies (CISAC) to uniquely identify audiovisual works through the application of a unique number. Based on CISAC. Draft ISAN: International Standard AudioVisual Number. (CIS Brief No. 3)

International Standard Book Number (ISBN). The international code of 10 digits that identifies a book (i.e. a non-serial literary publication). Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

International Standard Recording Code (ISRC). A code and numerical identifier developed by the International Standards Office and adopted as an international standard in 1986 as a means of identifying all or individual parts of audio, video, or audiovisual recordings internationally throughout the life of the recordings. ISRC is intended for use by producers of audio, video, or audiovisual recordings as well as by copyright organisations, broadcasting organisations, archives, libraries, etc. Prepared and administered by ISO/TC 46, Documentation, the ISRC is formally identified as International Standard ISO 3901.Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). The 8 digit International Standard Serial Number assigned to the key-title of a serial by the International Serials Data System (ISDS). Based on ISBD (NBM)

International Standard Work Code (ISWC). New international system in development by the International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies (CISAC) to uniquely identify musical (and potentially other types of) works through the application of a unique alphanumeric code commencing with the alphabetic letter, followed by nine digits and a check digit. Based on CISAC. Draft ISWC: International Standard Work Code. (CIS Brief No. 2)

Internet. Worldwide computer network which connects several national and local networks, and which is based on TCP/IP, a standard for computer communication.

Inventory. A finding aid listing and describing in varying degrees of detail the content of one or more record/archive groups, fonds, classes, or series, usually including a brief history of the organisation and functions of the originating body, and, if appropriate, indexes. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Ips (inches per second). The measurement of the speed at which tape or wire recording passes through a tape or wire player. Tape speeds are based on the early standard of 30 ips. Successive improvements in tapes, head, and other equipment have permitted reductions to 15 ips and 7½ ips for professional tapes, and 3¾ ips and 1 7/8 ips for home use. In many areas ips are being replaced by the equivalent metric figures (i.e. cms or cm/sec).Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Cms, Cm/sec (centimeters per second).

ISAN.
See International Standard AudioVisual Number.

ISBN.
See International Standard Book Number.

ISRC.
See International Standard Recording Code.

ISSN.
See International Standard Serial Number.

ISWC.
See International Standard Work Code.

Item. A single examplar of a manifestation. An item is a concrete entity. It is in many instances a single physical object (e.g. a single sound cassette). There are instances, however, where the entity defined as item comprises more than one physical object (e.g. a recording issued on three separate compact discs). IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Work; Expression; Manifestation.

Kinescope film (Kine). A particular type of motion picture film made for optimum filming from a television screen. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Kit. An item containing two or more categories of material, no one of which is identifiable as the predominant constituent of the item; also designated as multimedia item (prior to the introduction of electronic multimedia). Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Label. 1. Any affixed paper, plastic, slip, ribbon, etc., connected in a permanent manner at the time of production by the manufacturer, creator, or the individual responsible for the existence of the item. 2. In disc sound recordings, normally a round paper disc affixed to the central, unrecorded surface and containing some or all of the relevant artefact documentation/identifying information (i.e. label name, catalogue number, matrix number, take number, trade mark, statement of creation and/or performance, titles, place/date of recordings, publication/copyright data, et.al.) 3. In automated record processing, a code used to identify an item of data, an area of memory, a record, or a file. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Label area (sound recording). The physical area of a recorded sound item which would normally bear the label. Sometimes the label area may lack an affixed label, and instead contain identifying information written with chinagraph pencil, or etched into the area (lacquer discs, and coarse groove and microgroove discs, etc.). For CDs the area of the disc displaying graphic design and/or text is the label area and this information is accepted as label information.

Label name (sound recording). The publisher’s name identification or trade mark, as prominently displayed on the label, of the series of recordings to which a given recording belongs. In cataloguing of published sound recordings, the label name is given as the name of the publisher. Partly fromRTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Lacquer disc. A recording disc, either single or double-sided, made with a core of metal, glass or fibre and coated with a lacquer compound, usually acetate or cellulose nitrate, into which the grooves are cut; intended for instantaneous recording. Following the use of a wax master and until direct metal mastering became prevalent, the lacquer disc was, also, the first step in the record production procedure leading to final pressed recordings. Before the introduction and acceptance of magnetic tape it was the most widely used form of instantaneous recording; also referred to as acetate disc. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Laser disc. Includes CDs and videodiscs; may be mass-produced and pre-recorded, or blank and intended for the user to record, in which case only one copy is produced. The content of these media is digitally encoded (except for video on a videodisc which is in analogue form) and etched into a reflective layer on the disc in the form of holes or pits (depressions). A laser light beam is focused on the disc as it revolves; where there are no depressions, the light beam simply moves on; where there are depressions, the light beam is reflected back into the playback apparatus, which reads the reflections and eventually converts them back into an analogue signal for playback. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Lead in/lead out. The non-data programme grooves preceding and succeeding the data programme on a disc. The purpose of such grooves is to guide the pick up or tone arm into the first recorded grooves and out of the last recorded grooves. Also known as run in/run out grooves.
See also Wax, The.

Legal deposit. Under the law of various countries, the piece(s) of materials, usually publications, required to be placed with one or more repositories. The deposit requirements vary widely from country to country. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Local access. A method of obtaining an electronic resource by use of a physical carrier, such as a disk/disc, cassette, or cartridge, designed to be inserted by the user into a peripheral attached to a computer – typically a microcomputer. ISBD (ER)
See also Remote access.

Long play (video). The four (4) hour speed on a VHS videocassette recording when using a T120 cassette. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Long playing recording (sound recording) (LP). 1. A comparative term to describe the length of duration of a recording of greater duration than was previously available. The term has been used since the early days of the 20th century, first by the British company, Neophone, for its 20-inch vertical cut discs. Others which have used the phrase include Edison’s Long Playing Disc Records of 1926 (10 and 12-inch microgroove 80 rpm discs with a playing time of twelve and twenty minutes respectively); Victor’s standard groove 33 1/3 rpm Long Playing Records of 1932; and Columbia’s microgroove 33 1/3 rpm LP of 1948. 2. In usage since 1948, an analogue audio disc recording with a playing time of substantially over five minutes, normally referring to a 10 or 12-inch diameter, 33 1/3 rpm microgroove disc introduced by Columbia in 1948; also called an LP. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Loop. A length of audio tape, moving-image film, or tape that is joined together at both ends in order to permit playback without rewinding. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

LP.
See Long playing recording (sound recording)

Magnetic tape. A flat, thin strip of material either capable of being magnetically charged, or coated with particles capable of being magnetically charged, which is used for recording analogue or digital data. Magnetic tape is stored on reels, in cassettes, and in cartridges. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Magneto-optical-disc (MOD). A disc similar to the CD, but re-writable. Used for the storage of all types of data. Different formats are in existence.

Manifestation. The physical embodiment of an expression of a work. IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Work; Expression; Item

Master. In disc recording, a metal part recorded directly or generated from a lacquer original which may be used to generate additional metal moulds by electroforming or to press discs. Expanded from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Direct metal mastering (DMM).

Master disc. A finished disc recording in edited or approved form from which copies can be made in the recording producing process. It is used to produce a reverse copy or metal matrix which has ridges instead of grooves that is then used as a stamper for producing copies in the single-step process, or is used to produce a metal mother in the three-step process. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Master tape. A completed tape, used in tape-to-disc transfer, or from which other tape copies are produced. In commercial record production, the equivalent of the master disc and is controlled as the original recording from which all record and/or tape copies for distribution will come. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Matrix number. The number allocated to each side of a directly cut audio disc record, assigned by the record company at the time of recording, or sometimes in advance. Usually found etched, embossed, or stamped on the inside margin or centre. Generally it is a rough guide to the dating of the recording, and sometimes indicates which take or performance of several done in one session the recording actually represents. The matrix number may, also, indicate, usually in the prefix or suffix positions, additional data such as method of recording (i.e. electrical or acoustical), dubbing, recording engineer, place and original manufacturer. When dealing with records reissued under new issue numbers the matrix number is the chief means of verifying whether the reissue is the same take or performance as an earlier issue. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Take number.

Metal master. In disc manufacturing, the metal part produced from the original disc. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Microgroove1. A generic term indicating any form of small grooved item. 2. A groove, usually on a disc or a cylinder, with nominal width at the top, or widest part of the groove, of 3 mm. 3. A type of disc audio recording having 200 to 300 or more grooves per inch, suitable for reproduction by a stylus having a tip radius of 1 mm or less. Four minute cylinders and LP recordings are microgroove, as opposed to coarse groove for two minute cylinders and discs replayed at the generic 78 rpm speed. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Coarse groove; Groove.

Minidisc. Type of Magneto-optical-disc, similar to a diskette, developed by Sony for the recording and playback of data-reduced audio signals. Re-writable.

MOD.
See Magneto-optical-disc.

Mother. In disc replication, the negative mould intermediate between a father and a stamper; formed by nickel plating of the metal father. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

MPEG. Acronym for Moving Pictures Expert Group. The term MPEG refers to a series of international standards for digital video and audio bit rate reduction. Different MPEG standards apply to different levels of digital and decoding technology.

Multilevel description. A method of bibliographic description allowing for the presentation of information relating to an item which forms part of a multipart item or collection of items. This is based on the division of descriptive information into two or more levels. The first level contains information common to the whole or main publication. The second and subsequent levels contain information relating to the individual volume or other unit. ISBD (NBM)
See also Analytic record, Host item record.

Multimedia, Interactive.
See Interactive multimedia.

Multimedia kit.
See Kit.

Multipart item. Material comprising two of more distinct items (e.g. two or more discs in a set), no one of which is identifiable as being of primary importance. ISBD (NBM)

NAB. Acronym for National Association of Broadcasters.

Noise reduction. Circuits, systems, and/or a combination of same, designed to reduce subjective noise generated or added by the recording or transmission system on/in sound and/or picture quality. Extracted from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

NTSC. Acronym for National Television Systems Committee. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

NTSC-M. The colour television standard used in the U.S., Japan, and elsewhere (mainly the Pacific basin area), prepared by the National Television Systems Committee of the Electronics Industries Association, using 525 lines, 60 fields, and 30 frames per second. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also PAL colour system; SECAM television standard

Oral history (sound recording). Generally an in-depth interview which focuses on the interviewee’s life or career, or on an organisation’s history or activities or part thereof.

Other title information. A word or phrase, or group of characters appearing in conjunction with, and subordinate to, the title proper of an item. Other title information also occurs in conjunction with and subordinate to, parallel titles, variations of the title proper, part of volume titles, titles of individual works contained in the item, titles of series, or of sub-series. Other title information qualifies or explains or completes that title to which it applies or is indicative of the character, contents, etc., of the item of the works contained in it, or is indicative of the motive for, or the occasion of, the item’s production. The term includes sub-titles and avant-tîtres, but does not include variant titles (e.g. spine titles) found in the item. ISBD (NBM)

P notice. Associated information relates to ownership of recording rights on a physical item. The copyright symbol p followed by a date is known as the p notice or phonogram date. It has variant meanings under different copyright conventions and laws but generally indicates the first date of the sound recording. Based on ISBD (NBM)

PAL. Acronym for Phase Alternation Line. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

PAL colour system. The colour television system developed in Germany which has 625 lines, 50 fields, and 25 pictures per second; with one of the colour signals reversed in polarity between alternate lines. The standard used in Australia, Europe (except France and Eastern European countries), parts of Africa and Asia (e.g. India, China), and parts of South America. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also NTSC-M; SECAM television standard.

Parallel edition statement. The edition statement in another language and/or script. ISBD (NBM)

Parallel title. The title proper (or title of an individual work given in an item with no collective title proper) in another language and/or script; or the title in another language and/or script presented as an equivalent of the title proper. Parallel titles also occur in conjunction with the titles proper in series/subseries statements. ISBD (NBM)

Physical description. A set of data to describe the key physical attributes of a physical item The item may comprise one or more carriers.

Place of broadcast. Place from which a broadcast was transmitted.

Place of recording. Place where performance or event was originally recorded.

Prescribed punctuation. Punctuation supplied by the bibliographic agency to precede or enclose the information in each element (except the first element in Area 1) or Area of the bibliographic description. ISBD (NBM)

Preservation copy (Archive copy). The artefact designated to be stored and maintained as the preservation master. Such a designation may be given either to the earliest generation of the artefact held in the collection, to a preservation transfer copy of such an artefact, and/or to both such items in the possession of the archive. Such a designation means that the item is used only under exceptional circumstances (e.g. to prepare a duping copy). Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Access copy (Reference copy); Duping copy.

Pressing. 1. The process whereby a machine flattens, compresses, and squeezes materials to a predetermined shape such as an LP record. 2. Any item produced in such a process. 3. The items produced via such a process at a given time (i.e. the initial pressing was 1,000 LPs; the second pressing was 5,000 LPs). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Principle of provenance. The archival principle that the records or documents of a person, family or corporate body must be kept together in their original order, if it exists or has been maintained, and not be mixed or combined with the records or documents of another individual or corporate body. Based on the RAD

Production. 1. An imprecise term used to describe the multiple steps involved in making all the original material that is the basis for a finished sound recording and/or moving image creation. 2. A completed moving image creation and/or sound recording. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Production company (film, television and radio). May either: 1. Determine the content and form of the work and take responsibility for its manufacture and production; or 2. Be responsible only for the manufacture and production of the work, where there is, in addition, a sponsor. FIAF

Production company (sound recordings). 1. The firm responsible for the fixing of the sound at a recording session; and/or 2. The firm responsible for the mass production of the sound recording (e.g. pressing of discs or replication of tape copies). From ISBD (NBM)

Provenance. The person(s) or office(s) of origin of the fonds, i.e., the person(s), family (families), or corporate body (bodies) that created and/or accumulated and used the records or documents in the conduct of personal or business life. RAD

Publication (Issue, Release). Usual use of term is for commercially issued, mass-produced items. The terms issue, release, commercial issue or commercial release are synonyms for publication and usually apply to mass-produced sound recordings available for purchase by the public.
See also Published item.

Published item. Includes: 1. Mass-produced and commercially issued sound and video recordings, laser discs, interactive multimedia and local electronic resources, etc.; 2. Sound recordings generated as part of the (commercial) production process such as acetate masters, production masters, back up production masters (industry safety tapes), metal parts (mothers, masters, stampers, direct metal masters) and test pressings; 3. Releases of private, processed, custom or personal pressings for limited circulation, such as school speech nights, edited ethnographic field recordings, etc.; and 4. Other items produced for commercial public distribution (e.g. prints for cinema screenings, intellectual and artistic content released through the Internet and other remote electronic resources).
See also Broadcast item; Unpublished item.

Quantisation. In analogue to digital conversion, to assign one of a fixed set of values to an analogue signal as part of an analogue to digital process. For example in pulse code modulation, an analogue signal is sampled and quantised, and a corresponding set of binary pulses is produced. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Realisation. The mounting, staging or otherwise bringing into existence a work in performance. ISBD (NBM)
See also Expression.

Record company.
See Production company (sound recordings).

Recording (sound recording). Term in the context of The IASA Cataloguing Rules refers to the content of the sound carrier and is used to indicate the particular recorded performance or realised work.

Recording company.
See Production company (sound recordings).

Recording session. Occasion of sound recording being made or originally captured.

Reel.
1. The flanged hub, or spool, made of various materials (i.e. metal, glass, plastic, or combinations) for holding recorded tape, film, or similar strip materials.
2. The resulting roll of such materials. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Reference copy.
See Access copy.

Remote access. A method of using an electronic resource when there is no physical carrier to be handled by the user. The resources are stored on large storage devices maintained mechanically or by a computer technician, including hard discs on microcomputers. ISBD (ER)
See also Local access.

Respect des fonds.
See Principle of provenance.

Rpm. Acronym for Revolutions per minute. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Run in/run out grooves.
See Lead in/lead out.

Sampling frequency (sampling rate). The rate or frequency at which an analogue signal is analysed during the D/A (digital to analogue) conversion; generally expressed in Hertz. FromRTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition for "Sampling rate"

Season (broadcast).
See Timeslot.

SECAM. Acronym for Séquential Couleur à Mémoire.

SECAM television standard. The 625 line, 50 fields, 25 frames per second colour television standard developed in France which utilises a single-frequency modulated subcarrier for transmission of the chrominance channel; used in France, Eastern Europe, Sovereign States of the former U.S.S.R. most French speaking African, and most Arabian countries. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also NTSC-M; PAL colour system.

Section title. The title specific to a section which serves to distinguish one part of a group of related series having a common title. The section title is dependent on the common title for identification of a series whether distinctive or not. ISBD (NBM)

Serial. A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. In broadcast usage, a group of programmes with their story-line continued from episode to episode. From RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Series. A group of separate items related to one another by collective features (marks). The items may be intended for use in the sequence they are produced or not, and may be numbered or unnumbered, in production, broadcasting or other forms of publication. Such a group of items may be a finite series (complete) or an open-ended series (ongoing and therefore incomplete). Partly from FIAF

Series (archival).
1. A level of description.
2. File units or records within a fonds or collection arranged systematically or maintained as a unit because they relate to a particular function or subject, result from the same activity, have a particular form, or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, or arising out of their receipt and use. RAD

Series (catalogue numbers). Alpha and/or numeric sequence chosen and applied by some record companies to their products to identify and manage recordings according to different categories (e.g. by content, by price range).

Series statement. The main elements identifying a series, including any numbering of the separate items within the series. Also includes a statement that an item forms part of a multipart item. ISBD (NBM)
See also Subseries statement.

Shellac. 1. A term sometimes used interchangeably with 78 rpm, to modify the term disc. 2. A thermoplastic resin used as the basic ingredient in the production of disc recordings until supplanted by various vinyl formulations with the advent of the microgroove LP disc. Shellac discs could be solid shellac stock or laminated onto a board, fibre, plastic or paper core. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Single (sound recording). A published 45 rpm analogue disc recording usually containing one title per side; the selection lasting approximately three (3) minutes duration. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also CD (single).

Sound recording. 1. An artefact which has been constructed and used for the specific purpose of storing a representation of energy for the further purpose of reproduction in the audio portion of the spectrum. 2. The fixation of audio signals onto an appropriate carrier, such as cylinder, disc, tape, film, electronic file, or other medium. 3. The artefact resulting from such fixation. Based on RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Sound tape. A sound recording on magnetic tape; also called audio tape or phonotape. Adapted from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994. Definition of "Phonotape"

Sound track film. Motion picture film containing recorded sound only.

SPARS-Code. Recording industry codes developed by the Society of Professional Audio Recording Studios (SPARS). These often appear on CDs and indicate the encoding of the three generations of
1. recording,
2. mixing/processing, and
3. reproduction. A = Analogue, D = Digital, X = Unknown. Hence: DDD, ADD, AXD, etc.

Specific material designation. The term that indicates the specific class of material to which the item belongs. ISBD (NBM)

Sponsor (film, television and radio). A person or corporate body who commissions and/or finances the production of a work, usually for other than theatrical exhibition, and almost always for furtherance of public relations, or similar purposes. Typically the sponsor exercises some measure of control over the artistic and/or intellectual content of the work. From FIAF
See also Commercial sponsor (film, television and radio).

Stamper. The metal mould used in mass production of some materials (i.e. stamping or pressing disc sound recordings, injection moulding of polycarbonate plastic optical discs). The negative of a positive copy (a mother) of a master recording (generally made of metal by electroforming) from which final disc pressings are stamped in record processing. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Statement of responsibility. Name(s) or phrase(s) relating to the identification and/or function of any persons or corporate bodies responsible for or contributing to the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work or its realisation in the item or in the series of which the item forms a part. ISBD (NBM)

Subseries. Group of items which appear consecutively and belong within another more comprehensive series. The subseries forms a part of the main series.

Subseries designation. Word or lettering or numbering or a combination of these, following the title of the main series, which can stand alone or in conjunction with the title of the subseries. ISBD (NBM)

Subseries statement. The main elements identifying a subseries, including any numbering of the separate items within the subseries. In the case of a subseries the title of which is dependent on the titles of the main series the subseries statement includes both the title of the series and the subseries, and may include a subseries designation. ISBD (NBM)
See also Series statement.

Super VHS (S-VHS). Improved VHS system with different tape material.

Supplied title. A title provided by the cataloguer when an item has no title, and no title can be identified from any other source. FIAF

S-VHS.
See Super VHS.

Take number (sound recording). Number following a matrix number to identify a different performance (i.e. take) of the same work by the same performer(s) during a recording session.
See also Matrix number.

Timeslot (season). A timeslot or season is a regular programme time which may be used to broadcast material related by theme.

Title. A word or phrase, usually appearing in an item, naming the item or the work (or any one of a group of individual works) contained in it. From ISBD (NBM)

Title proper. Title proper is the chief name of an item, including any alternative title but excluding parallel titles and other title information. Based on ISBD (NBM)

Track. 1. The path on a magnetic tape on which the signal is recorded. 2. Sometimes used interchangeably with cut or band to indicate an individual recording on a sound carrier (grooved disc, tape, CD, etc.). RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Track configuration. For magnetic tape, the relative position of the active recording area references to the entire cross-section surface of the magnetic recording medium. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Trade name (sound recording).
See Label (sound recording).

Transfer. 1. To convey or transmit from one medium (or format) to another (e.g. an audio signal from a wax cylinder to a magnetic tape). 2. The resulting artefact from such action. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994
See also Copy.

U-matic. The Sony trade name for a semi-professional, ¾-inch composite videotape format in a cassette; also refers to the recording of PCM-coded digital audio signals, used in some areas in the mastering of CDs. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

U-matic H. The Sony trade name for a broadcast quality, semi-professional, non-segmented field ¾-inch, composite videotape format in a cassette recording system in which each television field is recorded onto a single track. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

U-matic SP. A videotape cassette format compatible with U-matic, but with improved video using a special oxide tape. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Uniform resource locator (URL). An address system for locating an electronic resource on a computer network. A URL consists of a service identifier followed by a specified protocol that is used to obtain a desired resource (e.g. http://www.ieee.org/index.html). ISBD (ER)

Uniform title. Supplied title to bring together all catalogue entries for a work when various manifestations (e.g. editions, translations, expressions or realisations) of it have appeared under various titles.

Unpublished item. Includes: 1. Unedited, unpublished, non-processed, unissued, unreleased or not broadcast audiovisual items; 2. Stock shots; 3. Unpublished electronic resources; 4. preservation, working or reference copies created in-house by an archive or collecting institution.
See also Published item; Broadcast item.

URL.
See Uniform resource locator.

VCR.
See Video Cassette Recorder.

VHS.
See Video home system.

VLD. Acronym for Video Laser Disc.

Video 8. A consumer cassette format for the storage of video signals based on 8 mm tape. A development of Sony.

Video 2000. A consumer format in competition with VHS and Betamax. No longer successful on the market.

Video cassette recorder (VCR). A consumer cassette format, forerunner of VHS and Video 2000 (14,5 x 12,5 x 5 cm, tape width 13mm). No longer successful on the market. Not to be confused with the same term applied generically to indicate domestic video playback equipment.

Videodisc. A flat circular platter on which both the audio and video information can be stored for playback by means of either a laser or stylus. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Video high 8. Improved Video 8 format for professional use. Used for video and multi-track audio production. 8 mm metal tape. Also known as High 8 and Hi8.

Video home system (VHS). A consumer video cassette format, developed by JVC, for recording video signals with reduced image quality.

Videoreel. A reel of videotape.

Videotape. 1. Magnetic tape intended for recording video and/or audio signals and from which playback is possible. 2. A television or video recording on magnetic tape with or without sound. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Vinyl. 1. Abbreviation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 2. Imprecisely used to refer to any of a number of plastics, many of which are not appropriate for use in preservation. 3. A contemporary slang term for a disc record. Extract from RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Vox pops (vox populi). Generally very short interviews conducted by the broadcast media to record and use public opinion on a current topic in the broadcast.

Wax, The. Area between the grooves and the label on a disc (sound recording). This use of the term applied to 78 rpm discs initially.
See also Lead in/lead out.

Wire recording. An audio magnetic recording medium which uses metal wire as the carrier of the recorded signal. RTAV Draft Glossary, 19 July 1994

Work. A distinct intellectual or artistic creation. A work is an abstract entity; there is no single material object one can point to as the work. We recognize works through individual realizations or expressions of the work, but the work itself exists only in the commonality of content between and among the various expressions of the work. IFLA. FRBR May 1996 (Draft report)
See also Expression, Manifestation, Item.

Year.
See Date.

Appendix E. Bibliography

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. Prepared under the direction of the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, a committee of the American Library Association … [et al]. Edited by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler. 2nd 1988 revised ed. Chicago: ALA, 1988. xxv, 677 p.

Association for Recorded Sound Collections. Associated Audio Archives. Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings. Rev. [US]: ARSC, 1995. x, 60 p.

Australian Record and Music Review: a quarterly discographical magazine for record and music collectors. Baulkham Hills, N.S.W.: Australian Record and Music Review, 1989-. Issues no. 6 (Jul. 1990); no. 8 (Jan. 1991); no. 10 (Jul. 1991)

Betz, Elizabeth (comp.). Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1982. 155 p.

CISAC (International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies). Draft ISAN: International Standard AudioVisual Number. (CIS Brief No. 3). 1 leaf.

CISAC (International Confederation of Authors’ and Composers’ Societies). Draft ISWC: International Standard Work Code. (CIS Brief No. 2). 1 leaf.

Fédération International des Archives du Film (FIAF). The FIAF Cataloguing Rules for Film Archives. Compiled and edited by Harriet W. Harrison for the FIAF Cataloguing Commission. München: K.G. Saur, 1991. xvi, 239 p.

Glossary of Terms Related to the Archiving of Audiovisual Materials. Prepared for UNESCO by a Working Group from the Round Table on Audiovisual Records. Draft of July 19, 1994 (not yet published). xv, 266 p.

Guidelines for Bibliographic Description of Interactive Multimedia. The Interactive Multimedia Guidelines Review Task Force, Laura Jizba … [et al] Chicago: American Library Association, 1994. xi, 43 p.

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